Muzvinafundo John Whitehall.

Kubva kuiyo Quadrant Magazine.

Introduction.

Mufungo wekushomeka kwemurume nemukadzi, umo chisiri chokwadi chechirume uye chemukadzi chisina kugadziriswa, chinogona kuchengetedza kukunda kwayo kukuru kusvika parino nekuburitswa kwe 'Nongedzo dzekuiswa kweiyo transgender nevanhukadzi vakasiyana mumitambo' neAustralia Human Rights Commission tichibatana neCoalition yeMajor Professional uye Kutora Nhabvu Mitambo (COMPPS) uye Sport Australia.[I] COMPPS inosanganisira iyo Australia Australia League, Cricket Australia, Nhabvu Australia, National Rugby League, Netball Australia, Rugby Australia uye Tennis Australia umo inozivisa pamusoro pe '9 mamirioni avanhu vanotora chikamu… kuburikidza 16,000 makirabhu'.[Ii] Kukunda kucharara mukuiswa kwefungidziro uye mamwe maitiro ehukadzi hwechikadzi pane angangoita chikamu chimwe muzvitatu chevaAustralia.

Euphemistically, mutsamba yenyaya yekusimbisa, COMPPS inosheedzera iyo Nhungamiro 'inopa mukana wakakosha kune vese vanobatanidzwa mumitambo yeAustralia ... kubva kune vatori vechikamu nevatambi vechikamu kuenda kumatare anotonga… kufunga nezve zvavangafambisa kusiyanisa nekuisirwa'. Asi, kubva pane Sumo chaiyo yeiyo Nhungamiro, iyo yakajeka iyo 'mukana wekuratidzira' zvinonyatso kureva 'nguva yekugadzirira kuteerera' kune zvirevo zveBonde Discrimination Act (Cth) iyo, kunyange yaidaidzirwa mu1984 kuchengetedza vakadzi vebonde. yakagadziridzwa mu2013 kusanganisa iyo kusiana kwevakadzi. Mumitambo, maAmitmende anosarurana nebonde raaifanira kuchengetedza.

Izvo zvinonzi Zvikoro Zvakachengetedzeka zvakazivisa pfungwa yekushomeka kwevakadzi kuvana muzvikoro zviri pasi pekudzvinyirira. Pasi pechirambidzo chekupokana nerusarura, izvo zvavanotenda uye zvinodzidziswa zvichamiswa nechisimba pamutemo kune vese maMadhi nemaDads, nevana vavo, uye vese vadzidzisi, vatungamiriri, vanozvipira nevashandi vanoita basa rekumhanya kwemakwikwi emitambo kurudzi rwose. Nekusanganisa vanhurume vanhurume vakakwiridzirwa kune vakadzi vanozobvisa kuchengetedzwa kweiyo 'nzvimbo yakachengeteka' yemitambo yevakadzi kuburikidza nekutora chikamu kwevanhu vane Simba rakapuwa masimba vanozotenda chero chirevo chezvepfungwa chekusarudzika ... kunyange muvana. Nekusanganisa vanhurume vechikadzi mumakamuri ezvipfeko zvavanosarudza, ivo vanotyisidzira iyo 'nzvimbo yakachengeteka' yekuvanzika kwevakadzi.

Sezvo isu tichizviziva, mutambo wevakadzi chiitiko chazvino. Maingova mu1900 apo vakadzi vashoma vakapinda mumitambo yeOlympic[Iii]. Mumitambo ye1928, nhamba yavo yakanga yawedzera kusvika ku2.2% yevatori vechikamu uye, ne2016 kusvika ku45%. Kusunungurwa uku kubva kunhurume kwakatsika tsika kwakagamuchirwa nenzira kwayo uye kwakaoma kunzwisisa kuti nzanga inogona, neimwe nzira kana neimwe, kuzviisa pasi pekudzoka kwekutonga kwevanhurume, kana zvisingaitwe nevakomana nevarume mumabhuruku, nevarume vanhurume leotards ..

Nhungamiro.

Nhungamiro dzinoitirwa munhu wese anopinda mumitambo: 'kubva kumakomisheni ekutungamira, varairidzi, vashandi pamwe nevazvipiri, vanotungamira nevatungamiriri… uye kune veruzhinji, kusanganisira vabereki nevanochengeta vatambi'. Nenzira, maGwaraidhi anotungamirirwa kune chero munhu 'anofarira (zvitsva) zvisungo zvepamutemo zvemasangano emitambo'.

Nhungamiro inotsanangura 'hukama hune hukama hwechikadzi' sekusanganisa 'chitarisiko, maitiro, kana humwe hunhu hukama hwemunhu (kungave nenzira yekupindira kwekurapa kana kwete) aine kana asina hanya ne munhu akasarudzwa pabonde pakuzvarwa'. Vanotsanangudza kusiyana kwemurume nemukadzi 'izwi rekuti amburera rinosanganisira nzira dzakasiyana-siyana dzinogona kuwanikwa vanhukadzi uye nekunzwisiswa… zvinosanganisira trans / transgender, munhukadzi, asiriye bhinari, murume kana mukadzi uye asiri mamwe uye akawanda.

Nhungamiro dzinotaura kuti 'zvinopesana nemutemo' kusarudza vanhu vakadaro maererano nenhengo, kutora chikamu paminda uye nzvimbo dzezvivakwa, uye kubvunza ruzivo rwega runogona kutungamira kusarura. Nekudaro, izvo zvese zvezvinogona kunyatsoita rusarura hazvina kujeka uye makirabhu akanyeverwa 'Iyo Nhungamiro haipi mhinduro yechokwadi yemutemo kune ese nyaya dzekusarura ... (uye) sangano kana munhu mumwechete haazodzivirirwe pakuwana kusarura zvisiri pamutemo kana vachiti ivo vaiteerera, kana kuvimba navo, aya maGwara '. Kuitwa kwezvibodzwa zvinongoita 'kudzikisira mikana yekubudirira yekusarura ichiti yakaitwa'.

Nhungamiro, zvisinei, dzinojekesa kuti vese munhu kana sangano rakawanikwa riine rusarura, uye munhu anobatsira uye anotendera kuti rusarura runogona kuve nemhosva pasi pemutemo. Vanosimbisa kuti 'zvakakosha kuziva kuti sangano rezvemitambo rinogona kubhadharirwa zviitiko zvevashandi kana vamiririri' avo vari kusarudza, kana kuita 'chikumbiro chisiri pamutemo cheruzivo'.

Kuita kuti zvinhu zvinyanye kutyisa, pasi peMutemo, mutoro weuchapupu unodzoserwa kupa mupomerwi mhosva kusvikira mhosva yaratidza.

Nhungamiro dzechinamato chitsva.

Nhungamiro dziri kusheedzera nyika nyowani paruzhinji negehena kuti radzivise (trans uye mamwe phobias, uye tsika kubva kwavakabudikira) uye nedenga kuti riwanikwe (nzenza yebonde uye yakasununguka nzanga). Makirabhu anofanirwa kuratidza kutendeuka (kana kuti kunyorera kuzviisa pasi) kune iyi pfungwa yakaomeserwa nehurumende nekumisikidza zvirevo zvekuzvipira pamasuo enhoroondo yeruzhinji. Ikoko, mumavara akagadzirirwa, anozivikanwa sehurongwa hweveruzhinji, ivo vachazivisa kutenda kwavo kuti 'kutora chikamu mumutambo kunofanirwa kuve kuri pamusoro pehunhu hwemunhu akasimbiswa kwete pebonde ravakapiwa panguva yekuzvarwa, zvizere kwazvo sezvinobvira'… Mwoyo, Saka Ndibatsire, Alfred Kinsey. Yambiro kuti kutenda pasina mabasa kwakafa, makirabhu anofanirwa kuratidza kutenda nekushingairira 'kukurudzira kwekubatanidza vanhu vekutapurirana uye vanhu vakasiyana', uye nekuparadzirwa kwedzidziso kuburikidza ne 'nhanho dzinoshandira' dzedzidzo yamakwai ose mumakuru awo. Vafundisi vanogadzwa 'kukwikwidza' chikonzero nekukurudzira vanotsvaga uye vanotsigira vatendi. Vabvunzi, vakanyatso kuzivikanwa se 'vanobatanidza mapurisa' vanozogadzwa kuve nechokwadi chekuteerera kune yakagamuchirwa zvinyorwa, uye kufambisa kunyunyuta kwekukanganisa kwevamwe vanhu, kunyanya avo kunoitwa nevana vanotambura.

Mufambiro wemitambo uchagovanisa zvinhu zvese zvakafanana: kubva kumadziro, zvimbuzi, uye makamuri ekupfeka, kuenda 'rakakodzera mitunhu yunifomu uye hukuru hunobata mafomu akasiyana emuviri'… Maitiro emitambo? Masanipoti ehutsanana achave aripo mumakamuri ese ekuchinja.

Kurega murume wekuzvarwa kubva kuzvivakwa kunogona kuve chivi chechibhabhu, chirango chinotungamirwa nenyika nenhau. Kuzviisa pasi pemaonero, zvisinei, kunogona kutarisirwa kuve nechokwadi chekuenderera mberi kwekubatsirwa kubva kune iyo nyika uye midhiya. 'Vatakuri vezvitendero' vatendi vanofanirwa kubuda. Kurovererwa pamutemo kuchave kwakanyanya kutyisa kufunga.

Mabasa ezvekusikwa anogona kutarisirwa kubva kumaklabhu eanokumbira. Zvikwata zvevakadzi zvisina zvematongerwo enyika zvinogadzirwa kubva mumatope emakwikwi ebhizinesi asi, kana izvo zvikave kure kwazvo, panguva ino maGuidirect zano zvikwata zvinogona kugadzirwa nekugoverwa pazvikamu zvezvikamu: '40% vakadzi, 40% varume uye 20% vasiri- chaiyo '. Kufambisa iyi nharaunda, 'mitemo yemumwe mutambo inogona kugadzirwa kunogadziriswa kuti igare nevatambi vasiri vebhinari'. Nekudaro, zvikwata mune izvo zvaimbove Rugby League zvinogona kunge zvichisanganiswa ne40% makwai uye 40% mbudzi ine 20% mupiro kubva kune mbudzi uchifunga kuti iwo makwai, makwai achifunga kuti mbudzi, vamwe vanogamuchira kuti vese, vamwe vanofamba pakati, uye vamwe havana chokwadi kuti ndivanaani. Kana mitemo yechinyakare ichipa mutambo kutonyanya kusazvidzora, vanogona kushandurwa nenzira kwayo saka munhu wese anongonakidzwa nekuti hapana mhuka muumambo iri kuuya inotora mukwikwidzi zvakakomba, ichiisa manzwiro emumwe munhu.

Chishamiso chiri mukati meichi chishamiso hachifanirwe kufuratirwa. Kuwanda kwevakadzi dysphoria muvakuru kunotaurwa neDiagnostic uye Sayenzi Manual yeMental Health (DSM) mu2013 kubva pa0.005% kusvika 0.04% mune varume, uye kubva ku0.002% kusvika 0.003% mune vakadzi. Nhungamiro ye2019 inoratidza kuti huwandu hwayo hwawedzera kusvika kuzadza kugoverwa kwe20% muzvikwata zvemitambo. Chitendero chitsva chine zvingwa zvacho nehove.

Kune izvi zvisina zvazvinobatsira, iyo Nhungamiro inosimbisa simba readhiabhori, testosterone, mumitsipa yeananozvarirwo varume vanogamuchirwa kuvakadzi vanofungidzirwa. Nhungamiro inodzinga basa rayo nekuzivisa kuti kune 'zvishoma mashandisirwo' pamhedzisiro yayo 'pane kuita kwemitambo ye transwomen'. Chero zvazvingava, muchitendero chitsva, pfungwa dzemunhu wese dzinopfuura nemweya.

Zvakare, iwo maGwaraidhi anotsvaga kudzora kutya kwekusagadzikana mumutambo wevakadzi nekuzivisa kuti 'hapana humbowo' hweanoshandura munhu kuti awane mukana wekukwikwidza. Hunhu hwevanhu hwave kutoshandurwa.

Chakavanzika chakaitika mune zvakawanda zvitendero. Zvichida kuratidzwa kwayo kukuru muGwaraidhi kunozova mukududzirwa kwekuregererwa kwavo kubva mukupomedzerwa kusarudzika nezvekuzivikanwa kwevakadzi mune chero mutambo wemitambo unokwikwidza mune uyo musimba, simba kana hunyanzvi hwevanokwikwidza yakakodzera '. Hapana kana izwi iri rakatsanangurwa muGuidigital iro rinoreva, sedzidziso, kuregererwa kwakafanana mumutemo weVictorian uye kuziviswa neVictorian Civil uye Dare Routonga. Iyo yekutanga inoratidza kuregererwa kunogona 'kushanda kana, kana vaviri varume vakakwikwidzana vachipokana, kukwikwidza kungave kwakaringana nekuda kwekusiyana pakati pesimba, simba uye muviri wevanhurume nevarume kukwikwidzana'. Nhungamiro dzinotaura izvi 'kufunga kunogona kuitika kune vanhu vakasiyana mazita echikadzi'. Chinangwa chakaziviswa ndechekuona 'nhanho yekutamba munda'.

Iko kuregererwa, zvisinei, hakushande kune 'mitambo yemitambo inoitwa nevana vari vadiki pane 12 makore ezera.' Vana ivavo vachatamba muzvikwata zvevakadzi vasina kwavakarerekera sekunge vakomana havana mabasa emawoko anozopa kuti minda iite 'vasina kufanana'.

Mubvunzo wekutanga ndewekuti 'mune mutambo upi unodzorwa neCPSPS isimba, simba uye muviri hazvikoshe?' Ndeipi yemitambo yayo iyo testosterone ingadai isina kupa mukana?

Mubvunzo wechipiri ndewekuti 'varume havasati vane mukana pasi pemakore e12'?

Testosterone inoshanda.

Kune mavhoriyamu akawanda ezvinyorwa pamhedzisiro ye testosterone kusimba kwemurume, achipa 'humbowo (uno) unoita kuti uve musiyano wepabonde mukutenderera testosterone yevakuru unotsanangura zvakanyanya, kana zvisiri zvese, kusiyana kwepabonde mukuita kwemitambo. '[Iv]. Kubvira pakuyaruka, testosterone inosimudzira kukura kwakadaro mumetabolism, mhasuru, pfupa uye oksijeni inotakura hemoglobin iyo varume iri, paavhareji, yakareba, yakasimba, uye nekukurumidza, uye ine kutsungirira kwakawanda mumuviri kupfuura kwevakadzi. Iyi mhedzisiro ye testosterone inofungidzirwa uye dhesi inoenderana uye, imwe nzira kana imwe, inoguma iri 8-12% ergonomic mukana mune vanhurume, kutanga nekuyaruka, kutenderera 11- 12 makore[V].

Zvakare, ivo vanotsvaga vanoreva dosi yakabatana neiyo testosterone pane uropi. Huang et al chirevo 'yakakurumbira wepfungwa inosimudzira maitiro mukuedza-kutsamira miedzo yesimba rekusimba' mushure mekuferefetwa kwemhedzisiro yehormone kune vakadzi vanotevera-menopausal[vi]. Vamwe vanosimbisa mhedzisiro yepfungwa kana yepfungwa ye testosterone[vii] kunyangwe maitiro echikamu chayo mukukwidziridza kwevanhurume mitambo haizivikanwe[viii].

Iyo patucity yekutsvagisa hukama pakati pe testosterone uye kugona kwemitambo yevanhurume vanopatsanurana neestrogen, testosterone inovhara zvinodhaka kana kutamiswa, inoratidza kukwezva kwezvidzidzo, hukama hutsva hwechinhu ichi, shanduko nzira dzekuyera kwehomoni, uye nenguva yakareba yenguva kunyimwa kwe testosterone kuve nemhedzisiro yekupedzisira. Hongu, mhedzisiro yayo pakuumbwa kwemapfupa uye kushanda (kusanganisira kuwedzera simba) izvo zvinobatsira mukurumbira wemitambo wechirume zvinogona, zvingave zvisingagumi. Kureva kuti testosterone iri pamusoro-yakatarwa pamusoro peiyo 'shoma zvidzidzo' iri kusangana.

Sei kushinha kune vakadzi vasina kwavakarerekera zvikwata zvevana?

Muchibereko, kubva paanenge 6 mavhiki ezera, pasi pesimba rejini pane Y chromosome, testosterone inosanganisirwa mukuita masculinisation yeanenge achiri kuzadza genitalia, uye kupinza kwechirume zvakachinjika muuropi.[ix]. Muchirume chepamberi pechirume, kunyange hazvo huwandu hweropa rayo rakafanana neechikadzi, pasi pesimba rechromosomes uye synergism nemamwe mahormone akadai seKukura Hormone, testosterone inotora chikamu mumutsara wekukura, uye kukura kwemasumbu uye nhengo[x]. Dhigiri re testosterone rakaramba riripo mukupa kwemaitiro emurume, kuburikidza neyechirume machero maitiro aakabatsira kugadzira, haazivikanwe, asi kunyangwe DSM inotaurira 'rough uye tumble play' kuve chiratidzo chechimiro chehurume hwehurume: mumwe kuvepo, yevakadzi fluidity, inobatsira kuziva 'vakomana vanozvarwa mumuviri usiri iwo'.

Chero chinokonzerwa nekrisimomoni uye nemahormone, paavhareji, vakomana vane simba rakakura kumhanya kupfuura vasikana, kunyange muudiki. Zvidzidzo zvakasiyana uye kuenzanisa kwakaoma nekuti vasikana vanopinda mukuyaruka mamwe 2 gore pamberi pevakomana uye, nekudaro, vane yekutanga kukura spurt iyo inopa mukana wakadai wemitambo sekukwirira uye kureba kwemakumbo. Nekudaro, zvimwe zvezvimiro zvemuviri sekusangana kwemafuta emuviri uye musana wakasindimara, kushandisa oksijeni uye huwandu hweropa rakatorwa nomoyo mukurova kwega kwega, zvinoita sekunge kunobatsira kusimbisa kugona kwechirume. Munguva yekukura kwechikadzi, iyo inogona kutanga pa9 makore, mafuta emuviri wechikadzi anowedzera kusvika ku25%, achienzaniswa ne12-14% mune varume. Okisijeni kushandiswa ndeye 12% yakakwira muvakomana pamakore 10, ichawedzera kusvika ku25% ne12 makore uye 35% ne16. Uye huwandu hweropa rakabuda kubva pamoyo mune rimwe nerimwe contraction rakakura.[xi] Izvi zvinokanganisa zvinogona kufananidzwa nemotokari yekumhanyisa: inoenda nekukurumidza uye zvakareba pasina marimu mubhoti; injini yayo ichabvisa mamwe simba kubva peturu; carburettor yayo ichapa zvimwe peturu kune yega kurova kweinjini, uye Peter Brock achange ari kumashure kwevhiri.

Vakomana ita zvirinani pamunda. Nei kudzikisira vasikana vane makwikwi asina kukodzera?

Chero chipi zvacho chinokonzeresa muviri uye yembereko, mukuyedza kwakawanda kwevanomhanya muhurume vanhurume zvinoita zvirinani. Mienzaniso ndeyeLegionion, uye inofanirwa kuve inokura.

Semuenzaniso, kudzidza kuHolland pane 7977 vana vane makore 4-12 makore akawana kuti, kunze kwevadiki vezera re4, vanhurume vaive nehukuru hweAthletic Skills.[xii]. Mumwe achibva Portugal kune vana vane avhareji yezana yemakore 10.8 yakaratidza mukana wehurume mune aerobic kusimba, simba, kumhanya, uye agility kunyangwe kuwanda uye kushanduka kuri kukuru muvasikana. Kusiyana kwevakadzi kwakakura musimba rinoputika remakumbo ekumusoro uye akadzika. [xiii]. Mumwe anobva kuPortugal, pavana ve3804 kubva pamakore 6-10 vakaratidza kukura kwakasimba kwemuviri muvakomana.[xiv] MuGreece, kutsvakwa kwevana ve424,328 vane makore 6-12 kwakaratidza vakomana kazhinji vakakwirisa kudarika vasikana pakutsungirira kwemweya, kusimba kwemasuru, kushaya tsandanyama, uye kukurumidza / kusimba, asi kuderera pakushanduka.[xv]. Zvakare mumwe anobva kuEurope pa10,302 vana kubva 6-10.9 makore airatidzira vakomana vakaitwa zviri nani kupfuura vasikana nekumhanya, kudzika- uye kumusoro-kwembambo simba uye moyo wenhengo, asi vasikana vaive nehuremu huri nani uye hwakagwinya.[xvi] MuUS, mune imwe ongororo pavana ve568 vane makore akaenzana emakore e9.5, vakomana vakapfuura vasikana muhutano hwekuzvimba nemweya wekuderera uye simba rakaderera remuviri: 'kurara kwakasiyana mukusimba kwemuviri kwaive pachena pamberi peiyo pubescence'.[xvii] Uye, gore rapfuura, kumwe kuongorora kubva kuEurope, pane vana nepwere kubva 9-17 makore, maererano ne2,779, 165 Performance inomiririra nyika dze30, yakawanikwa, paavhareji, vakomana vakaita zvakanaka zvakanyanya kupfuura vasikana 'pazera rimwe nerimwe reboka'[xviii].

Ndichinetseka kuti sei vasikana vachinyanya kukanganisika kukuvara kune vakomana, musiyano wechikadzi wakawanikwa muchiyero chesimba resaini yekumarara kwemisumbu muvana kubva 7-12 makore[xix]. Vakomana vaive nehukuru hwakakura hwekuwedzeredza simba pazera rese, nepo vasikana vaive vakakwira quadriceps simba pa7,9,10 uye 12 makore ezera. Tichipiwa mutsauko wechikadzi mune yakamabvi yebvi uye nhengo dzayo, yakataurwa simba remasuru mumakumbo evasikana haina kuvimbisa kusimba uye, nekudaro, ivo vanofanirwa kutanga kudzivirira muviri pazera rekutanga. Misiyano yeAnatomical pakati pe pelvis nemabvi evasikana nevakomana zvakakosha.

Chidzidzo cheAustralia chakaratidza vasikana pazera re8 zera vaive ne18% yakaderera Cardio-kufema simba uye 44% kuderera kweziso roruoko kupfuura vakomana[xx]. Chimwe chidzidzo cheAustralia pa85, vana ve347 vane makore kubva ku9-17 makore vakawana vakomana kazhinji vakakwidzwa kupfuura vasikana pane moyo nemwoyo kutsungirira, musuru simba, mutsipa kutsungirira, kumhanyisa uye simba bvunzo asi zvakaderera pakuchinja[xxi].

Mumwe munyori weAustralia akaongorora mutsauko wepabonde mukuita kwevatambi muvana kubva ku10-18 sezvakataurwa kubva kuNorway nePoland, uye ruoko-kubata simba muvasiri vana vemitambo muUS neCanada.[xxii]. Mune track uye munda, akataura 3% ukuru muhurume hwepamberi pubertal iyo yakawedzera kusvika ku10.1% neanoyaruka. Mukusvetuka, iyo pre-pubertal yakakwirira ye5.8% yakawedzera kusvika ku19.4%. Mukushambira, hukuru hwevanhurume hwepakutanga-kunyorwa hwaive, zvakanyanya, kupfuura 2%, asi hwakawedzera kuburikidza nekuyaruka kusvika kutenderera 6% nezera 13-14, uye kutenderera 10% ne17-18. Sezvineiwo, akataura kuti 'hapana kupfupika mugeji yekushambira ... anopfuura makumi matatu emakore'. Ruoko-kubata simba raive rakakura zvakanyanya mune vechinyakare, uye nekukosha mushure mekuyaruka, zvichidaro kusiana kwevakadzi 'chinhu chinowoneka pakuyaruka kwechirume' pane kuzviwonesa muhurongwa hwevakakwikwidza. Iko kubatana kwezviitiko zvekusiyana neye pubertal yekukwira mu testosterone, inonongedza kune iyo hormone's causative athari. Vamwe vanyori vanobvumirana nemhedzisiro ye testosterone asi vanosimbisa mupiro wemamwe mahormoni kukura kwemasumbu uye simba mumurume ari kukura[xxiii].

Zvinyorwa zvemitambo zvinoratidzei?

Mhedzisiro yeiko kuongororwa pamusoro inosimbiswa neyemitambo kubudirira kwe 'elite' vadiki veAustralia vatambi. Kuongorora kwe 175 track, munda uye zvinyorwa zvekushambira zvakaburitswa neNSW department reDzidzo zvinongoratidza chete zvinyorwa zve6 zvevasikana kuve vakapfuura zvakawanikwa nevakomana muzera rakati zviitiko zvakaringana kubva ku8 kusvika kumakore 17. Nezve kusiyana kwemhombwe panguva, hurefu kana urefu hwemitambo, pazera 8, pakanga paine avhareji ye2% yakakwirira yevanhurume (0.2% mukushambira uye 3.2% mumitambo). Pa9, yaive 1% (0.3 uye 2.2%). Pa10, 2% (-0.6 uye 3.8%). Pa11, yaive 4% (0.6 uye 6.2%). Pa12, yaive 4% (1.9 uye 5.4%). Pa13, yaive 10% (6.3 uye 13.3%). Pa14, yaive 11% (6.3 uye 14.6%). Pa15, yaive 13% (7.35 uye 16.4%). Pa16, yaive 13% (9.7 uye 14.5%). Pa17, yaive 17%.

Saizvozvowo, iyo State Record yeChidiki Athletics NSW inoratidza, seku 2018, kuti kubva pasi peiyo 7 kusvika pasi pemakore 17, vakomana vakamhanya mhanya, vakasvetuka kumusoro uye zvakare, uye vakanda zvinhu kupfuura vasikana, kunze kwezviitiko zviviri chete: izvo zviri pasi 12 makore 1500 mamita anofamba ayo, mu1994, musikana akapedza mumaminetsi e6.38.7 achienzaniswa nemukomana mu2000 uyo akatora 6.45.2 maminetsi; uye iyo iri pasi pe7s, 70 mita yekumhanya, umo vasikana nevakomana vakagovana nguva ye11.04 masekondi[xxiv].

Kazhinji, vakomana vane makore 4-12 makore vanowanzo shanda kupfuura vasikana[xxv], kutora chikamu mune zvakapetwa kaviri uye zvine simba basa[xxvi]. Yakaiswa data kubva kuEurope inopa vanasikana kubva ku4-18 makore anoita paavhareji 17% yakaderera izere basa rezuva nezuva[xxvii]. Uye zvidzidzo kubva kuAustralia, zvakasimbisa 19% kushoma mabasa muvasikana kubva 8-12 makore[xxviii]. Ichiratidza chiitiko chakakura chevakomana, Nutrition Australia inokurudzira kuwedzera zvikamu zvekudya zvemarudzi akasiyana siyana kusvika kuvanhurume kubva mukusagadzikana[xxix]. Kutsvaga iyo mumhanyi motokari kufananidzira, kwakawanda peturu kunodiwa kune hukuru hwekuita.

Kunyunyuta kwevakadzi.

Kupiwa iyo 'kushinha' muAustralia yemitambo yemahara yemitambo[xxx] uye kuratidzwa kwenzvimbo dzakakura dzekuita uye kugona kwevakomana mumitambo yakawanda pazera zhinji, vasikana vanofanirwa kubvunzwa zvavanofunga nezvazvo? Literature ishoma asi Lyu naGill vakaongorora manzwisisiro evadzidzi vechikadzi vekuKorea vekwavo, kugona kwavo muviri, kunakidzwa kwavo uye kushanda kwavo muhukama humwechete nekuenzaniswa nekirasi yakasanganiswa yedzidzo[xxxi]. Vakataura vadzidzi vechikadzi mumakirasi evanhurume nevanhukadzi 'vane hunyanzvi hwepamusoro' munzvimbo dzose, vachinongedzera kune rimwe basa iro rakagumisa vasikana vainetseka nezvevakomana kuongorora maitiro avo nechitarisiko chavo, paine mumwe musikana akataura kuti iye 'Akanyadziswa' (ndinonyara)… isina kunaka pamitambo uye handifarire chero munhu anoiona '[xxxii].

Zvichemo zvinoitwa nevanhukadzi vekuzvarwa nezvekumanikidzwa kukwikwidza nevakadzi ve transgender, zvisinei, zviri kuwedzera muUnited States. Semuenzaniso, munaJune 2019, vasikana vatatu vezvikoro zvepamusoro vakamhan'ara nyaya yekusarura kuDhipatimendi reZvedzidzo vachipokana neConnecticut Interscholastic Athletic Musangano, vachisimbisa kuiswa kwevatambi ve transgender kunogadzira mukana usina kunaka.[xxxiii] Sekutaura kwavo nechikwata chemitemo, Musangano uyu 'wabvumidza vakomana kukwikwidza vasina kukwikwidza mumakwikwi evanasikana' kana vakadaidzira zita revakadzi. Nekuda kweizvozvo, maviri 17 gore rakapfuura akakurumbira masheti evakadzi 'vakunda munda, vachiisa zvinyorwa mumisangano ye15 iyo yaimbove yakaitwa ne10 vasikana veCloudicut'. Nekudaro mutemo wakagadzira 'nzvimbo isina kurongeka yekutamba yevakadzi vatambi' mune vanokwikwidza vasikana 'vachiteedzwa nenzira yakakodzera uye yakaenzana mukana wekunakidzwa kwekukunda'… uye mukana wemitambo kudzidzira kumakoreji. Iyo purogiramu 'inodzosera makore anoda kusvika 50 ekufambira mberi kwevakadzi'.[xxxiv] Vasikana vacho vanoti ruzhinji rwevatambi vechikadzi vanonzwa senge ivo, asi vanotya kwazvo kuratidzira pachena.

Vanonyunyuta vanotaura kutora chikamu chevachinjika mumitambo zvinopesana nechinangwa che1972 Amendments kuMutemo weDzidzo yepamusoro uyo waida kudzivirira kusarura vanhukadzi. Mu2014, Dhipatimendi reZvedzidzo rakawedzera chipfupi kubatanidza vadzidzi veku transgender uye mu2016 kuti Dhipatimendi neDhipatimendi reJustice rakapa chirevo chakabatana muchidimbu chinosungirwa kuzvikoro 'kubata vadzidzi zvinoenderana nehunyanzvi hwavo hwekutaura kwevakadzi kunyangwe magwaro ari pachena bonde rakasiyana, kubvumira vadzidzi ava kutora chikamu mumitambo yakasarudzika uye kuwana nzvimbo dzakakamurwa pabonde dzinoenderana nekwavo kwakaratidza, uye kuchengetedza kuvanzika kwemudzidzi pazvinhu izvi '[xxxv].

Connecticut haisiri iyo nyika chete yekugamuchira humbowo hwekuzivikanwa kwevakadzi pasina humbowo hwehomoni kana kuvhiya. Sekureva kwesangano rinosimudzira, TransAthlete, 18 dzimwe nyika dzinogamuchira kutaura kwekuzivikanwa kwechikadzi sechiremera chega chekubatanidzwa mune zviitiko zveChikoro chepamusoro uye zvivakwa: 15 inobata kubvumirwa pane imwe nyaya nenyaya yehwaro, uye 9 inosarudzwa senzira yekusarura kwevanoda humbowo hwehomoni. kurapa kana kuvhiyiwa, pamwe chete nenguva yekumirira migumisiro yemahormone kugadzikana. Vamwe vacho havana mutemo[xxxvi].

MunaFebruary 2017, Mutungamiri VaTrump vakadzora chisungo chehurumende chekubvumidza kupinda mumba yekugezera uye makavhavha masisitendi pachiratidziro chekuzivikanwa kwechikadzi.[xxxvii][xxxviii] Pasina kupokana, kwaive nekushora. Semuenzaniso, Yunivhesiti yeHawaii yakazivisa kuti yakanga isina chinangwa chekudzoka kubva mukufambira mberi kwainge kwaita mukudzivirira kodzero yevanotapa vanhu kuti vapinde ma Locker uye dzimba dzekugezera zvinoenderana nehunhu hwavo hwechikadzi.[xxxix].

Matambudziko emakirabhu.

Basa remakirabhu harichazotongobvumidzwa pamitambo. Ivo vanofanirwa ikozvino kuve mitezo yekusimudzira uye tsika yeyakagadzirirwa pfungwa. Vanofanira kuzivisa chitendero chavo chitsva, vadzidzise nhengo dzavo mukutenda, kusimudzira uye kukoka kutora chikamu mukutenda kwavo uye kuita zvavanotenda mumakamuri ekupfeka. Kukundikana kutevedzera kucharangwa.

Avo vaimbove vakazvitsaurira kudzidzisa vana nzira yekumhanya nekukurumidza kana kukanda mabhora mberi, uye vanogadzira rosters, barbecue uye raffles kutsigira maitiro, ikozvino vanozofanirwa kuziva zvakavanzika zvekusarura kusinga tsanangurike. Kune avo vanoshandiswa kupenda miganhu, mitemo yakajeka uye zvimiro zvemberi zvinogoneka, kubata nevabereki vane hutsinye hwevana vakavhiringidzika nevechirume kunogona kuve hope. Kuita nevabereki vevasikana vanoda 'nzvimbo dzakachengetedzeka' dzakachengetedzwa kunogona kuve musoro.

Zviri naïve, kana zvisiri kusangana, zveZvakatungamira zvekutaura kuti hapana munhu akapfuurwa angangotsvaga 'mukana wekukwikwidza'. ndeye naïve kufunga zvakajairwa miyedzo haizokonzerese mukutsvaga kwe 'bonde mukana' mumakamuri ekuchinja. Vadzidzi vechinamato chitsva vatowana zvivi zvisina kukwana here? Uye, kana acolyte ikakundwa nemuyedzo, ndiani achava nemhosva yekuchengetedza "nzvimbo yakachengeteka" yevasikana?

Ndiani achave nebasa rekuvakwa kwemakamuri matsva emahara emahara? Uye, kana makamuri akadaro achingowedzeredzwa kune zvaro zviripo, hazvizosarudze vashandisi vazvo, zvichiita kuti kusarura kuwedzere?

Nhungamiro dzinotyisidzira nyonganiso: kuparadzwa kwe "nzvimbo yakachengeteka" yevakadzi, uye kuisirwa kwemitoro yemasangano uye kutyisidzirwa kwepamutemo kumakirabhu anoita zvakanyanya, zvishoma, kwehutano uye hunhu hwehupenyu hwevazhinji vechidiki veAustralia. Nhungamiro dzinobatsira, pasirese, kutyisidziro yekuvapo kwemitambo yevakadzi. Uye zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti, pasi rese, mutambo wevakadzi une kukosha kwakanyanya kupfuura kudzingisa bhora kutenderedza munda: inobatsira mukusimudzirwa kwevakadzi nekuwanikwa erusununguko, dzidzo, uye hutano hwevakadzi nevana.

Mubvunzo unofanirwa kubvunzwa: iko kuparadzwa kwemitambo yevakadzi kune basa kune vanoisa murangariro wekubuda kwevakadzi? Sezvo iyo pfungwa yaizodzikisira muviri mupfungwa, mutambo ndewekushandisa nzira yekuiswa kwepfungwa nyowani here?

Zvese zviri pamusoro hazvireve kuti hapana vanhu vadiki vanovhiringidzika pamusoro pehunhu hwechisimba. Iko kukanganisika kwenzanga kuri kunetsa nhamba iri kuwedzera yevechidiki nemhuri dzavo avo vanofanirwa netsitsi uye nehanya. Tsitsi dzakadai dzinogona kuvakwa kuburikidza nemhuri uye yega yepfungwa nepfungwa kurapwa nechinangwa chekubatsira mwana kuti ave akasununguka mumugariro Chakavanzika chakatemerwa. Wechidiki haana kubatsirwa neyemutambo munharaunda inosangana pamwe nenyonganiso. Uyezve, kubatanidzwa kwakadaro kunopfuudzira dambudziko.

Mareferensi.

[I] Nhungamiro dzekuisirwa kweiyo transgender uye vanhukadzi vakasiyana mumitambo. Australian Human Rights Commission 2019

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[Ii] Nhungamiro ibid. COMPPS: p 9.

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[Iii] https://www.olympic.org/women-in-sport/background/key-dates Accessed July 27_2019

[Iv] Handelsman D, Hirschberg A, Mharidzo S. Yakatenderedza testosterone sehomoni hwaro hwekusiyana kwepabonde mukuita mumhanyi. Endocrine Rev. 2018.39 (5): 803-829.

[V] Handelsman D, Hirschberg A, Mharidzo S. Yakatenderedza testosterone sehomoni hwaro hwekusiyana kwepabonde mukuita mumhanyi. Endocrine Rev. 2018.39 (5): 803-829.

[vi] Huang G, Basaria S, Travison T et al.Testosterone dhiini-mhinduro hukama muvakadzi vane hysterectomised vane kana vasina oophorectomy: mhedzisiro yekuita zvepabonde, nhengo yemuviri, tsandanyama kuita uye kuita kwomuviri pamwe nekushanda kwakabudirira muyedzo yakasarudzika. Kuenda kumwedzi. 2014; 21 (6): 612-623.

[vii] Celec P, Ostatnikova D, Hodosy J. Pamhedzisiro ye testosterone pane maitiro ehuropi. Pamberi Neurosci. 2015; 9: 12.

[viii] Handelsman DJ. Misiyano yebonde mukuita zvemitambo inobuda ichienderana pamwe nekutanga kwekukura kwemurume. Clin Endocrinol. 2017; 87: 68-72.

[ix] Bakker J. Musiyano weBonde weBasa revanhu: Basa reBonde Hormoneser Kuita Zvepabonde Chromosomes. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2019 Jan 1. doi: 10.1007 / 7854_2018_70 http://hdl.handle.net/2268/234696.

[x] Mauras N, Rini A, Sager B et al. Synergistic mhedzisiro ye testosterone uye kukura mahormoni eproteni metabolism uye kuumbwa kwemuviri muvakomana vePububertal. Metabolism. 2003. 52 (8): 964-969.

[xi] Oxford Chinyorwa cheMitambo yevana uye Mushonga Wokurovedza muviri.

[xii] Hoeber J, Ongena G, Krijger-Hombergen M et al. Iyo Athletic Unyanzvi hwekutevedzera: zera uye murume nemagariro ane hukama hunhu hweiyo mota mota bvunzo ye4 kune vana vezera re12. J Science uye Mushonga muMitambo.2018; 21: 975-979.

[xiii] Marta CC, Marinho D, Barbossa T et al Kusimba kwekusiyanisa kwakasiyana pakati pevakomana nevasikana vasikana. J Simba Simba Res. 2012.26 (7): 1756-66.

[xiv] Roriz De Oliveira MS1, Seabra A et al Physical fitness percentile machati evana vane makore 6-10 vanobva Portugal. J Mutambo Wemitambo Yekunyama 2014 Dec; 54 (6): 780-92.

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xv] Tambalis KD, Psarra G, Panagiotakos DB et al Mhando yekusimba yemitezo yemhando yevakomana nevasikana vechiGreekX-6-makore, vachishandisa iyo yekupa simba neye lambda, mu, uye sigma nzira yekuverengera. Euro J Sport Sci. 18 Sep; 2016 (16): 6-736.

[xvi] De Miguel-Etayo P, Gracia-Marco L, Ortega FB et al.. Mwero wekusimbisa masimba ekudzivirira muvana veEurope: iyo IDEFICS kudzidza. Int J Obes (Chando). 2014 Sep; 38 Suppl 2: S57-66.

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xvii] Flanagan S, Dunn-Lewis C, Hatfield D et al. Kusimudzika kwemusiyano pakati pevakomana nevasikana kunoguma nekuita bonde-chaiyo yekusimba kwemuviri kubva paChina kusvika kuchishanu Giredhi. J Simba Simba Res Res.2015.29 (1): 175-180.

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xviii] Tomkinson G, Carver K, Atkinson F et al. European yakajairika tsika yekusimba kwemuviri muvana uye vayaruka vane makore 9-17 makore: zvawanikwa kubva 2,779,165 Eurofit Performance inomiririra 30 nyika. Br J Sports Med. 2018; 52: 1445-1465.

[xix] Holm I, Vollestadt N. Yakakosha mhedzisiro yechikadzi pane hamstring-kune-quadriceps simba ratari uye chiyero chiyero mu preubescent vana kubva 7-12 yemakore. Ndiri J Sports Yemishonga. 2008; 36 (10): 2007-2013.

[xx] Telford RM, Telford RD, Olive L et al. Sei vasikana vasina kusimba mumuviri pane vakomana? Zvawanikwa kubva kuROKA Longitudinal Study. PLOS 1. 2016; 11 (3).

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xxi] Catley M, Tomkinson G. Normative hutano hwakakonzerwa nehutano hwehutano hwevana: kuongororwa kwe 85347 miedzo yekuongororwa pane 9-17 yeAustralia yemakore kubvira 1985. Br J Sports Med. 2013; 47: 98-109.

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xxii] Handelsman D. Bonde mutsauko mukuita zvemitambo anobuda unowirirana pamwe nekutanga kwekubereka kwemurume. Clin Endocrinol. 2017; 87: 68-72.

[xxiii] Round J, Jones D, Kudza J et al. Hormonal zvinhu mukukudziridza kwekusiyana kwesimba pakati pevakomana nevasikana panguva yekuyaruka: kudzidza kwenguva refu. Annals yeBi Biol. 1999; 26 (1): 49-62.

[xxiv] Nyowani-LANSW-Nyika-Records.pdf

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xxv] Sallis J, Prochaska J, Taylor W. Kuongororwa kwezvibodzwa zvemuviri wezviitiko zvevana nevechiri kuyaruka. Med Sc Mitambo Yekufambisa. 2000. 32: 963-975.

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xxvi] Trost S, Pate R, Dowda M et al. Kusiyana kwevakadzi muchiitiko chemuviri uye zvevakadzi vekuita zvemuviri mumaruwa echishanu vana. J Sch Utano. 1996.66: 145-150.

[xxvii] Ekelund U, Luan J, Sherar L et al. Ine mwero kune yakasimba kurovedza muviri uye kugara nguva uye cardiometabolic njodzi zvinhu muvana uye vachiri kuyaruka. JAMA 2012; 307: 704-12.

[xxviii] Telford RM, Telford RD, Olive L et al. Sei vasikana vasina kusimba mumuviri pane vakomana? Zvawanikwa kubva kuROKA Longitudinal Study. PLOS 1. 2016; 11 (3)

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xxix] Nutano Australia - yeAustralia Dietary Nhungamiro Dzakakurudzirwa Zuva Nezuva.

[xxx] McKay M, Burns J. Kana zvasvika pamitambo, vakomana 'vanotamba semusikana'. Kukurukurirana. Aug 4, 2017.

[xxxi] Lyu M, Gill D. Akasarudzika kugona kwemuviri, kunakidzwa uye kushandira muhukadzi humwe-hwepabonde uye hwakabatana-hwedzidzo yekudzidzisa muviri Dzidzo Psychology. 2011; 31 (2): 247-260.

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xxxii] Evans B. 'Ndainzwa kunyara': vasikana miviri uye kutora chikamu kwemitambo. Gender, Nzvimbo uye Tsika. 2006; 134 (5): 547-561.

[xxxiii] Washington Times. Terry Miller-Andraya Yearwood-Transgender Sprinter / 2019 / Feb / 24/

[xxxiv] The Selina Soule Kunyunyuta

(Dzvanya Pano> Kuti uwane mushanduri wepamhepo PDF pamutauro wako.)

[xxxv] US Secretary weDzidzo Betsy DeVos Nhaurwa Chirevo pane Nyowani IX Nhungamiro

[xxxvi] https://www.transathlete.com/about

[xxxvii] Musoro IX Dziviriro yeVadzidzi veTrgegender

[xxxviii] Reaction: Trump Utongi Inosunungura Musoro IX Dziviriro Kune Vadzidzi veTrans

[xxxix] UH Mutungamiri Anopindura KuTrump's IX Guidance (Feb. 23, 2017) - Youtube

%d bloggers seizvi: