Kudzivirira Kukuvadza, Kusimudzira Kururamisira: Kuongorora

NaDr Con Kafataris (Jan 2020)

Kudzivirira Kukuvadza, Kusimudzira Kururamisira: Kuongorora

Mumakore apfuura imwe yemakakatanwa mune hupenyu hwezvematongerwo enyika neAustralia hupenyu hwave 'kuita zvepabonde, uye kuvhiringidzika kwevakadzi' kunowanzodaidzwa kuti "dysphoria" kana transgenderism.

Pfungwa iripo yemagariro / yekurapa / yezvematongerwo enyika ndeyekuti titende kuti kurara kwevanhu uye kuvhiringidzika kwevakadzi ndezvezvarwa, zvakaberekerwa uye hazvigone kuchinjwa. Pfungwa iyi ndeyokudzinga, uye 'kurapa', kana kuedza kubatsira vanhu vanoshuva kubvisa zvisina kufanira- kurara nevanhukadzi kana kuvhiringidzwa kwevakadzi, vanobatwa se'kati 'uye' nyoka yemafuta '. Chokwadi, munguva pfupi yapfuura hurumende dzemunyika dzakasiyana siyana dzeAustralia dzakatanga maitiro ekupara mhosva dzakadai seTrap

Asi zvingaitika here kuti vamwe vanhu vari kushushikana chaizvo nekukwezva vasingafarire-kukwezva vanhukadzi kana kuvhiringidzika kwevakadzi uye vanoda kubatsirwa kuti vabvise? Huye, chokwadi ndechekuti vanhu vakadai variko uye vakashandisa kodzero dzakafanana nedzedu tese tikasangana nemanzwiro asingadiwe: vakatsvaga rubatsiro. Maitiro nemaitiro akashandiswa asvika pakudaidzwa kunzi 'kutendeuka kwekurapa'

Chimwe chezvikamu zvinonzi zvinoratidza kuti hurumende idzi dzinovimba neakaitora kubva kuLa Trobe University yakanzi 'Kudzivirira Kukuvadza, Kusimudzira Kururamisira' (PHPJ) iyo yakaratidzirwa kurasa chose kuedza kupi nekupi kwekuchinja tsika yekuita zvepabonde kana kuvhiringidzwa kwevakadzi. Asi zvekare, iyi nyaya ndeyechokwadi yakajeka-yakatemwa nekugadziriswa sevatori venhau nevezvematongerwo enyika vakaita kuti titende? Nepo gwaro (PHPJ) richitsvaga kupenda mufananidzo chaiwo we LGBT 'kutendeuka kurapa' iri gwaro rakakanganisika zvakanyanya pamazinga mazhinji. Yakakanganisika mukugadzirwa kwayo, haina mhosho munzira yekushandisa saka mhedzisiro yayo haigone kubatsira asi kukanganisa. Nehurombo, iri kutengeswa seyakatsanangurwa, pakadzika uye nekudzidza kwakadzama kwekushandura kurapa muAustralia.

Kunyange zvingave zvakati wandei zvakatsanangurwa anopfuura makumi mapfumbamwe mapeji pakureba, uye inogona kuongorora nyaya dzevamwe vevatori vechikamu pakadzika, hachisi chiratidzo chakanyatsojeka che 'kutendeuka kurapa' muAustralia. Kune akati wandei matambudziko uye ini ndichavaratidza kunongedzera nepfungwa pazasi.

Yakasarudzika Dhizaina yakakwana kubvunza mune iyo nyaya.

Chirevo hachisi chekuongororwa chakadzama nezvekuita kana kushayikwa kwaro kwekushandura kurapa. Iyo yakawanda yeakaongororwa yenhoroondo, ese ekuvandudza kwekurapa kwenguva yakareba uye yemhedzisiro yayo pane vashoma vakasarudzwa vanhu. Izvi hazvifanire kunge zvichishamisa sezvo munyori anotungamira ndiTimothy Jones, ane hunyanzvi nhoroondo, kwete sainzi yemagariro, Psychology kana Psychology. Naizvozvo nepo chingave nechimwe chakakodzera chero chipi zvacho chakaitika, hachisi chirevo chesainzi uye hachifanirwe kushandiswa kutungamira zvisarudzo zvemitemo zvikuru sekubvumidza kana kupara mhosva kweimwe kurapwa.

Akakanganisika Maitiro

Vanyori vakabvunzurudza vanhu 15 vanhu vaive nezviitiko zvisina kunaka nekushandura mushonga. Vakawana idzi 15 kubva LGBT midhiya uye vakati ivo vaive 'vamiririri vakamiririra vechitendero uye LGBT demographics muAustralia'. Vakatanga nemuenzaniso we50 asi vasingabatanidze 35 yavo nekuda kwezvikonzero zvakasiyana.

Zvakaitika zvevanhu ava gumi nemashanu zvinokurukurwa zvakati wandei muzvitsauko zviviri zvemushumo. Mumwe chete wevanobvunzurudzwa akarondedzera zvakajeka chiitiko ne'dzidziso yekurapa 'yakaitika' munopera 15s '. Zvisinei nerondedzero yake yakadzama yekugamuchirwa muchipatara chepfungwa uye 'kudzikiswa kuva nemagetsi kunobatirwa paLabia yangu', chero kuchipatara, mazuva kana chiremba aripo anotsanangurwa. Izvi zvinoita kuti zvisakwanisika kuve nechokwadi kana ichi chakanyatsoitika nenzira yaanotsanangudza. Tichifunga nezvekuti nhoroondo yake inotsanangura kurwiswa hutsinye pamunhu wake, kuongororwa kwechokwadi kweakaunti yakadai kunokosha.

Zvinotaridza kuti nepakawanda, marapirwo aibatanidzwa aive maitiro ehushumiri ekutanga akadai sekuona mavhidhiyo, misasa yehushumiri, kunyengetera pamwechete, zvidzidzo zvebhaibheri uye mapoka ekutsigira. Iyi miitiro yakabetsera mamirioni avanhu pasi rese makore apfuura kubata matambudziko kubva mukusuwa kufirwa nevadikani, kurambana, kupindwa muropa nezvinodhaka, kuona zvinonyadzisira, uye zvimwe zvinhu zvakawanda. Naizvozvo vanhu ava havana kuiswa pasi chero rudzi rwechiitiko chekurapa izvo zvaisazoonekwa se 'mukurumbira' mumatunhu ehushumiri. Izvi zvinosanganisira shumiro yemunamato uye hushumiro yekununura.

Vanyori vacho havana kubvunza chero munhu aiti akawana ruzivo rwekuchinja kubva ku'tendeuka yekurapa '. Icho chokwadi ndechekuti kune vanhu vakadaro muAustralia uye kune vanopfuura gumi nevashanu vavo. Vamwe vakapinda muwanano dzechinyakare uye vamwe vakasiya humwe-humhandara uye vamwe hupenyu hwavo hwekutenderera hurefu. Kunyangwe ichi ichi chiri chokwadi chinozivikanwa kuna ani nani anoziva nyaya iyi, vanyori vePPJ havana hanya navo zvachose.

Izvo zvinofanirwa kuve pachena kune chero munhu kuti munhu haakwanise kuratidza hwakakwana uye hwakakwana hwekuona kwechimwe chinhu kunze kwekunge mumwe aongorora mativi ese enyaya kana nyaya. Chirevo chakanyatsoteerera avo vakawana shanduko isingaperi. Iyo chete tsananguro inonzwisisika yekusiiwa iyi ndeye kusarura pane chikamu chevanyori. Izvo hazvigone kuve sekusasarura kana chinangwa.

Hune Uchapupu

Mutsara wekutanga chaiwo muchikamu 1.1 unoti:

'Psychological research yakagadzira hwakakura hwechipatara humbowo ayo maitiro anoitirwa kudzokorodza kwe LGBT vanhu haashande uye ose anokuvadza uye asina tsika ' (kusimbiswa kuwedzera)

Zvino ichi chirevo chakasimba. Chaizvoizvo chiri kutaura kuti 'kupfuura kusahadzika' kuti 'kutendeuka kwekurapa' 'hakushande. Tichifunga nezve yakakwana mamiriro erevo, zvingave zvine musoro kutarisira kuti yakatsigirwa neufakazi hwakakwana hwese uye zvirevo.

Muchokwadi, iro revo chete rakapihwa nevanyori chirevo chechinzvimbo kubva kuAustralia Psychological Society 2015 'APS Position Statement pakushandisa maitiro epfungwa anoedza kuchinja maitiro ezvepabonde'. Inoita inotevera zvirevo zvine simba uye zvakajeka:
'APS inoshora zvikuru chero nzira yekudzidzira kwepfungwa kana yekutsvagira inobata varume vanoita zvevakadzi, ngochani nevarume vanoita bisexual vanhu vakagovaniswa. Iyo APS zvakare inopesana nenzira ipi neipi yekudzidzira kwepfungwa kana tsvakurudzo inoedza kuchinja wega munhu wekuita zvepabonde. Iko hakuna wezera-yakaongororwa yehunyanzvi hwepfungwa hwekutsvagisa hwepfungwa kunyatso kunyora kugona kwe 'kuchinja' uye mafungiro emunhu '

Zvekare, iwe waizotarisira chakasimba, chakazara madai ekutsigira neuchapupu hwakasimba hwakakwana. Kana iwe ukaongorora mareferensi akapihwa, pane chete kudzidza kumwe chete naShidio & Schroeder kubva ku2002 iyo pachayo iri 'mutengi mushumo'.

Izvo zvisiri izvo APS kana vanyori vePhPJ vanotaura ndezvekuti pane zvimwe zvidzidzo zvekutsvagisisa zvinoburitsa kubudirira kwekuedza kushandura zvido zvepabonde izvo zvakaburitswa zviri zviviri mubhuku bhuku uye zvinounzwa kumisangano yepfungwa muUS. Chakanyanyowoneka cheizvi raive pepa rekutsvagurwa naWhitehead naSantero (Chikunguru 2018) iro rakanyora zvibodzwa zvakakosha kubva mukushandurwa kwechigadzirwa neuchapupu hushoma hwekukuvara. Kune zvakare humwe humwe humwe humbowo hwewusiyano hwakasiyana hunoratidza kuti imwe cohort yavanhu inobatsirwa kubva ku'kutendeuka kurapa 'uye izvi zvinobvumwa neAmerican Psychological Association mumushumo wavo we2009 wekushandura kurapa.

Kutaura chokwadi, vanyori veIPPJ vanokurukura izvi mune Appendikita kumishumo yavo asi hazvina kutaurwa mumuviri weiyo mushumo. Chokwadi, mushure mekuverenga chirevo uyu muverengi haana kupihwa chero chiratidzo kunze kwekushandura kurapa kuchikuvadza uye hakushande '. Chishandiso chinonzi 'psychiatry uye kutendeuka pakurapa' chine chirevo chakafanana asi chinobvuma ongororo imwe chete iyo inoratidza zvinobatsira pakushandura kurapa. Pamusoro pezvo, vanyori vanonongedza kwazvinobva zvinoratidza kuti kurapa kweshanduko hakuna zvakunobatsira, semuenzaniso APA 2009, pasina kutaura kuti avo vanopa mukana kumushumo uyu, Diamond naSavin-Williams vanongobvuma kuti kurara nevanhukadzi kuri kuita mvura.

Vanyori vanonongedza kunobva kuCornell University yakadanwa zita rekuti 'whatwenow' (Zvita 2017), izvo zvavanoti zvinoratidza kuti kutendeuka kurapa hakushande. Kana munhu akanyatsoongorora iro sosi, zvakadaro tinowana kuti rinoti:

'Isu takaratidza 47 peer-yakaongororwa zvidzidzo izvo zvakasangana nematanho edu ekuwedzera kune ruzivo nezve kunyangwe mushonga wekushandura (CT) unogona kushandura maitiro ekuita zvepabonde pasina kukuvadza. Gumi nematatu e izvo zvidzidzo zvaisanganisira yekutanga kutsvaga. Kune avo, 12 yakagumisa kuti CT haina basa uye / kana inokuvadza, kuwana zvinongedzo nekushungurudzika, kuzviuraya, kunetseka, kuzviparadzanisa nevamwe uye kuderera kugona kwehukama. Chidzidzo chimwe chete chakagumisa kuti maitiro ekuda kuita zvebonde anokwanisa kubudirira- kunyangwe mune vashoma vevatori vechikamu, uye chidzidzo ichi chine zvakawanda zvinoverengeka: mienzaniso yayo yose yakazviratidza sechitendero uye yakavakirwa pazviripoti, izvo zvinogona kutsanangurwa kusavimbika. Zvidzidzo 34 zvakasara hazviite kutsunga kwekuti CT inogona kuchinja tsika dzepabonde asi inogona kupa tarisiro inobatsira kuti vatungamirire vanorapa vanorapa LGBT varwere. '

Saka zvinopfuura 70% yezvidzidzo zvakaongororwa hazvina kuita kutsunga nezvekuti kushandurwa kurapa kunogona kuchinja tsika yekuita zvepabonde. Iyi 70% yakafanana yakatsanangurwa kupa 'zvakawonekwa zvekubatsira' kubatsira varapi. Izvi zvakafanana nekutaura kuti "isu hatingo ziva '. Mutemo wehurumende unofanirwa kunge wakavakirwa pane 'Hatingazivi' here? Ko mishonga yekurapa, panogona kuve neane anecdotal chiratidzo chekuti zviuru zvevanhu pasi rose zvakabatsira pasina kukuvadzwa, mhosva ichipomedzerwa nekuda kwe'Tingangoziva '? Mhinduro ine musoro kune izvi ndeye 'kwete ivo havafanire'. Asi izvi ndizvo chaizvo izvo vanyori ve PHPJ vangati titende.

Hapana-arikutaura kuti SOCE kana shanduko yekurapa inogona 'kushandura' chero munhu zvichipesana nezvaanoda, asi kune boka rakakura rezvirwere uye humbowo hwezvinoratidzira kuti, kune avo vanoda kubatsirwa vasina kufanira vakafanana pabonde- zvinokwezva kana kuvhiringidzika kwevakadzi, kuti kumwe kurapa. nzira dzinodonhedzwa seSERCE dzinogona kubatsira vanhu vakadai kuzadzisa zvinangwa zvavo mukuderedza kana kugadzirisa zviri nani izvi zvisingadikanwi SSA kana GD.

Chokwadi chekuti vanhu vazhinji avo vakaita zvepabonde zvisingaite vakawana mukana kubva mukushandurwa mushonga wakanyororawo mushumo we 2017 kuUS Federal Trade Commission yakanzi 'Mumashoko Avo Vako: kunyepa uye Kubiridzira' neNational Task Force ye Therapy Kuenzana. Sangano iri rinotsanangurwa se "mubatanidzwa wevashandi vane mvumo yepfungwa, varapi vepfungwa, varapi, masangano ezvemitemo yeruzhinji uye vatengi vepfungwa / varwere vanobva kuUnited States of America. Chinangwa chavo ndechekuchengetedza kuringana kwemishonga kune vatengi vanonzwa kushushikana nekuda kweizvozvo zvevakadzi zvisina kunaka zvinokwezva uye mhirizhonga yekuzivikanwa kwevakadzi"

Zvinozoonekwa kuti kune vanoverengeka vane hunyanzvi uye vane marezinesi ehutano muUS vanotenda kuti zvisirizvo kukwezva vanhukadzi vanogona kurapwa. Zvinoitika sei kuti mubatanidzwa wakadaro urege kungovapo, asi kuti uzvinyurure zvakananga kukomisheni yekutengeserana yemubatanidzwa, kunze kwekunge vaine humbowo hwezvavanoreva. Kunyatso ongorora kwegwaro kunoratidza kuti vane humbowo hwakakwana hwezvavanoreva. Ose mushumo uyu uye we2009 APA mushumo wakaparurwa pamberi pePPJ asi ivo vasina kunyatsoitirwa.

Pane angangoita 2 mikana yeiyi:

1.) Vanyori veIPPJ vaisaziva nezvekuvapo kwavo, mune izvo nyaya yavo havafanirwe kutariswa seyekutarisazve nhoroondo uye humbowo hwekupokana nekushandura. Izvo hazvifanirwe kushandiswa sehwaro hwehurongwa hweveruzhinji.

2.) Vanyori veIPPJ vaiziva nezvekuvapo kwavo asi vakasarudza kusazvitaura. Izvi zvinongogona kuve nekuda kwekufungira parutivi rwevanyori ava saka rondedzero haigone kutariswa seyakanakira uye kusasarura.

Saka mukupfupisa, vanyori vakaita muchirongwa chekutenderera kufunga.

1.) Ivo vakafungidzira kubva pakutanga kuti shanduko yekurapa haishande

2.) Ivo chete vakataura chiratidzo chinotsigira ichi fungidziro.

3.) Naizvozvo hazvifanirwe kushamisika kuti yakasara yemushumo inoenderera ichiratidza kuti 'ino uye
tarisa ', kutendeuka kurapa hakushande.

Mhedzisiro Dzakatadza

Kana munhu akafunga nezve chokwadi chekuti PHPJ ine chakakanganisika dhizaini, nzira yakakanganiswa uye zvikanganiso muhupupuri hwayo, hazvifanire kushamisika kuona kuti mhedziso dzakakanganiswa. Chokwadi, hapana nzira yavangatadza kukanganisa, vachipiwa chokwadi chekuti vari pamusoro penheyo dzakakanganiswa. Dambudziko guru ndiko kusara kwakakwana kwehuviri hwechipatara uchapupu uye nyaya dzega dzinotsigira kutendeuka kurapa. Icho chinonyatsozivikanwa chokwadi chekuti izvi zviri zviviri zviripo uye nokudaro kusiya kwavo kubva kuPHPJ kunogona kungova neimwe yekutsanangurwa kwe2:

1.) vanyori vaisaziva nezvavo uye havana kuvabatanidza.

2.) Vanyori vaivaziva uye vakasarudza kusazvisanganisira. Tsananguro ingangodaro
nekuti ichi chichava kusarura pakurwisa kutendeuka.

Either sarudzo inopa mushumo wacho zvisingaite seyakakwana, chirevo mushumo pamusoro pekushanda kwekushandura kurapa uye unopa zvisina kukodzera sehwaro hwehurongwa hwehurumende maererano nekutendeuka kurapa.

Dhawunirodha pdf apa> Kudzivirira Kukuvadza, Kusimudzira Ruramisiro: Tsoropodzi - Dr Con Kafataris (Jan 2020)

Anoshandura pdf yepamhepo anogona kuwanikwa pano> https://www.onlinedoctranslator.com/

%d bloggers seizvi: