Ntinye nwoke na nwanyi: Prọfesọ Dianna Kenny

KNke a mere na mkpebi imere maka mgbanwe mgbanwe nwoke na nwanyị: Ajuju na Azịza.

Site na Prọfesọ Dianna Kenny, PhD

N'isiokwu a, m na-eleba anya na isi okwu na arụmụka transgender dịka ha gbasara ụmụaka na ndị na-eto eto. Ndị a gụnyere: "Usoro ọgwụgwọ mgbanwe ọnọdụ nwoke na nwanyị" adịghị mma, "ọgwụgwọ" yana ọdịmma kacha mma nke nwatakịrị ahụ? N'ịtụle ajụjụ ndị a, m na-enyocha nsonaazụ ọjọọ ndị a ma ama nke njakịrị ime nwoke na nwanyị homonụ na nwoke na nwanyị nwere mmekọahụ, gụnyere amụghị nwa na ọnọdụ ahụike ndị ọzọ na ịkọwa ọnụ ọgụgụ igbu onwe onye na-enweghị ọgwụgwọ. Childrenmụaka na ndị na-eto eto nwere ike inye nkwenye n'ezie maka mmemme ndị a? Olee ọrụ ndị nne na nna kwesịrị ikere n’ime mkpebi? Dabere na gịnị ka a na-eme mkpebi iji gaa n’ihu mmadụ? Ntọala nke mkpebi ndị dị otú ahụ ọ bụ ihe ezi uche dị na ya na sayensị? na kedu ndị na-elekọta mmadụ na-arụ ọrụ n'ime mkpebi a?

1) Nchedo: Ihe aka na sayensị a ugbu a na-akwado nkwubi okwu na nchịkwa nke Ọgwụ Mmegharị Ọsịsọ (ntụgharị mmekọrịta ọha na eze, ndị na-egbochi mmechi nwoke na homonụ nwoke na nwanyị) nwere ike bụrụ ihe nchebe maka ụmụaka na ndị na-eto eto?

Azịza:  Mba. Achọpụtaghị ihe ndị na-emetụta metabolic nke nchịkwa hormone na-enwe mmekọahụ na ahụ ike nke nchịkwa hormone na ọkpụkpụ, akwara, ọrịa obi, cognition, na ndụ nke ọma (de Souza et al., 2017). Emere imirikiti nyocha banyere ihe egwu ahụike nke homonụ nwoke na nwanyị na MTF (nwoke ‐ na nwanyị) ma e jiri ya tụnyere FTM (nwoke na nwoke) transsexuals. Nke a emeela nchọpụta ezughi oke banyere mmetụta nke testosterone na FTM (Newfield, Hart, Dibble, & Kohler, 2006). Agbanyeghị, nsonaazụ homonụ na-adị n'etiti nwoke na nwanyị anaghị anọgidesi ike maka otu abụọ, dị ka akwụkwọ anyị nyochapụtara n'okpuru na-egosi.

 Mmetụta Ntinye Nkwuputa Mmekọahụ nke nwoke na nwanyị maka ahụike uche n ’transsexuals ka nwoke.

Wa ahụ na-efe efe nke ụmụ anụmanụ, na-eduga na ọnwụ nke testosterone, na-ebute mbelata akara na njupụta synaptik na hippocampus na mbelata ikike nke mmụta na ebe nchekwa. Usoro ọgwụgwọ homonụsị FTM na-ebute ọnwụ
ọkpụkpụ ọkpụkpụ (van Kesteren, Egbugbere ọnụ, Gooren, Asscheman, & Megens, 2001). Venous thrombo ‐ embolism (Asscheman, et al. 2014) na osteoporosis (Wierckx, 2012) achọpụtala dị ka nsogbu nke ịgwọ ọrịa mgbochi mmekọahụ nke ndị ọrịa MTF transsexual. Na nyocha nke transwomen nke ogo nke testosterone na-ekesa, ndị nwere ọkwa kachasị elu nwere ọrịa hepatic steatosis (imeju abụba) na insulin resistance (Nelson et al. 2016).

A na-ejikọkwa ọgwụgwọ hormone-mmekọahụ metụtara kansa metụtara ọrịa kansa, ihe egwu na-abawanye na oge nke ikpughe na ịka nká nke ndị transgender (Mueller & Gooren, 2008; Quinn et al., 2015). Ọ bụ ezie na ọnụọgụ nke ọrịa cancer nke ovarian na FTM transsexuals amabeghị, ọtụtụ akwụkwọ ọmụmụ a kọọrọ na akwụkwọ ndị ahụ, na-eduga na ịkpachara anya na ọgwụgwọ testosterone nwere ike jikọta ya na ọnụọgụ nke ọrịa cancer nke ovarian na endometrial (Izon, Tejada-Berges, Koelliker , Steinhoff, Granai, 2006). Ndị transsexuals FTM ndị na-aga n'ihu na hysterectomy na salpingo-oophorectomy nke abụọ nwere ihe ize ndụ maka endometrial, ovarian na cancer cancer (Menvielle & Gomez-Lobo, 2011). Ọrịa ndị ọzọ dịka, (colorectal, lung, lymphatic na haematopoietic, na melanoma) apụtaghị na a ga-ebuli ha elu na ndị TF ma e jiri ya tụnyere ndị otu RF (Quinn et al. 2017).

A na - ahụkarị ọrịa thrombosis dị egwu, infarction myocardial, CVD (ọrịa obi), na ụdị ọrịa shuga 2 na ụmụ nwanyị trans (TF) karịa ndị na - achịkwa (Wierckx et al., 2013). Na Quinn et al. (2017) ọmụmụ, myocardial infarction mere na okpukpu abụọ nke ọnụego na TF (1.8%) ma e jiri ya tụnyere ụmụ nwanyị na-ezo aka (RF) (0.9%). Akwara elu akwara ikuku (3.1% vs 1.9%) na angina na-adịghị agbanwe agbanwe (1.8% vs 1.0%) na TF ma e jiri ya tụnyere RF (Burcombe, Makris, Pittman, & Finer, 2003). Na MTF transsexuals, a ghaghị izere ogo ogo estrogen iji gbochie thrombosis, imeju umeji na mmepe nke ọbara mgbali elu. Ihe ruru 20% nke MTF ejiri estrogens mesoo na-egosi ọkwa dị elu na prolactin na ịbawanye pituitary (Menvielle, & Gomez-Lobo, 2011). Okwu ndị a chọrọ nlebara anya oge niile.

Mastectomy nke abụọ na-efe efe na FTM transgender ọrịa nwere nnukwu ihe ọghọm nke ịwa ahụ na nsogbu ahụike. N'ime otu ọmụmụ nke ndị ọrịa 57 FTM (40.4% nke ọ nwere nchọpụta ọrịa uche), 33% nwere nsogbu ndị metụtara ya gụnyere hematoma, ọrịa, seroma, fistula, ma ọ bụ akụkụ necrosis nke onuara-areola complex na 9% chọrọ ịwa ahụ ozigbo, nke kachasị maka hematoma. Nnyocha buru ibu nke ndị mmadụ na-ekwu banyere TMs nwere ihe ize ndụ ka ukwuu maka ọrịa ara ure, ọrịa cancer na-aervụ sịga na ọrịa cancer metụtara nje (Silverberg et al., 2015).

Homonụ nke nwoke na nwanyị na-abawanye emetụta ụbụrụ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, testosterone nwere njikọ na mgbanwe na ọkpụrụkpụ cortical, na estradiol nwere njikọlite ​​na ihe isi awọ n'ime ụmụ agbọghọ.

N'akụkụ mmetụta mmetụta uche nke homonụ na-enwe mmekọahụ, FTM nwere ahụmịiko na mmetụta mmekọahụ karịa na mmetụta dị ala mgbe nchịkwa homonụ (Slabbekoorn, 2001). Omume e ji mara ndị ọzọ dịka mmetụta ọmịiko (nke kachasị elu na nwanyị) na oke iwe (oke na ụmụ nwoke) metụtara mkparịtaụka testosterone pre-natal (Hines, 2008).

 

References:

Asscheman, H., T'Sjoen, G., Lemaire, A., Mas, M., Meriggiola, MC, Mueller, A., & Gooren, LJ (2014). Venous thrombo ‐ embolism dị ka mgbagwoju anya nke cross-mmekọahụ hormone ọgwụgwọ nke nwoke- na-nwanyi transsexual achị: A nyochaa. Andrologia, 46(7), 791-795. doi: 10.1111 / na.12150.

Ọrịa Venous thrombo bo embolism dịka mkparịta ụka metụtara mmekọahụ nwoke na nwanyị gbasara mmega ahụ.

 

Burcombe, RJ, Makris, A., Pittam, M., Finer, N. (2003). Ọria ara ure na-esote mascutcation subcutaneous mastectomy na ntụgharị nwoke na nwoke. Ara, 2, 4, 290-293.ISSN 0960-9776,

  Ọria ara ure na-esote mascutcation subcutaneous mastectomy na ntụgharị nwoke na nwoke.

 

De Souza Santos, R., Frank, AP, Nelson, MD, Garcia, MM, Palmer, BF, & Clegg, DJ (2017). Mmekọahụ, Gender, na Transgender: Mmetụta Metabolic nke ọgwụgwọ ọgwụgwọ Hormone. Na F. Mauvais-Jarvis (Ed.), Ihe Mmekọahụ na Mmekọahụ Na-emetụta Ọnọdụ Homeostasis, ọrịa shuga na oke ibu (p. 611-627). :Lọ Cham: Na-ebipụta Akwụkwọ Ọhụụ.

  Mmekọahụ, Gender na Transgender: Mmetụta Metabolic nke Cross Hormone Therapy.

 

Hines, M. (2008). Mmetụta mbụ nke androgen na mmepe mmekọrịta mmadụ na akparamaagwa ya. Mmalite nke mmadụ, 84(12), 805-807. doi: 

  Mmetụta mbụ nke androgen na mmepe mmekọrịta mmadụ na akparamaagwa ya.

 

Izon D. S, Tejada-Berges T, Koelliker S, Steinhoff M, Granai C, O. (2006). Ọrịa Ovarian jikọtara na mmeju testosterone na onye ọrịa transsexual nwoke na-nwoke. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 62: 226-228. doi: 10.1159 / 000094097

  Ọrịa Ovarian jikọtara na mmeju testosterone na onye ọrịa transsexual nwoke na-nwoke.

 

Kääriäinen, M., Salonen, K., Helminen, M., & Karhunen-Enckell, U. (2017). Surgerywa ahụ na-eme ka ụmụ nwanyị na-arịa ọrịa transgender: Nyocha nke otu-etiti nyochara usoro ịwa ahụ etinyere na nsonaazụ. Akwụkwọ akụkọ Scandinavia, 106(1), 74-79.

 Chest-mgbidi contouring ịwa ahụ na ụmụ nwanyị na-nwoke transgender ọrịa: 

 

Menvielle, E., & Gomez-Lobo, V. (2011). Njikwa nke ụmụaka na ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma nwere dysphoria okike. Akwụkwọ akụkọ gbasara ọrịa ụmụaka na ụmụ nwanyị, 24(4), 183-188. doi:

  Nchịkwa nke ụmụaka na ndị ntorobịa nwere dysphoria okike.

 

Mueller, A., & Gooren, L. (2008). Hormone metụtara akpụ na transsexuals enweta ọgwụgwọ na cross-mmekọahụ homonụ. European Journal of Endocrinology, 159, 197-202.

  Ebumnuche metụtara metụtara na-efe efe na transsexuals na-anata ọgwụgwọ na homonụ na-enwe mmekọahụ.

 

Nelson, MD, Szczepaniak, LS, Wei, J., Szczepaniak, E., Sánchez, FJ, Vilain, E., Stern, JH, Bergman, RN, Bairey Merz, CN, & Clegg, DJ (2016). Transwomen na ọrịa metabolic: Ọ orchiectomy na-echebe? Ahụike transgender, 1, 165-171.

 Transwomen na metabolic syndrome: Ndi orchiectomy na-echebe?

 

Newfield, E., Hart, S., Dibble, S. na Kohler, L. 2006. Nkpuru-nwoke diri nwoke nke nwoke. Nchọpụta nke Ndụ, 15: 1447 – 1457.

  Nkpuru-nwoke diri nwoke nke nwoke.

 

Quinn, VP, Nash, R., Hunkeler, E., Contreras, R., Cromwell, L., Becerra-Culqui, TA,. . . Goodman, M. (2017). Profaịlụ ngbako: Ọmụmụ banyere ntụgharị, nsonaazụ na okike (STRONG) iji chọpụta ọnọdụ ahụike nke ndị transgender. Mepee BMJ, 7(12), e018121. doi: 10.1136 / bmjopen-2017-018121

  Ọmụmụ banyere ntụgharị, nsonaazụ na okike (STRONG) iji chọpụta ọnọdụ ahụike nke ndị transgender. 

 

Quinn GP, ​​Sanchez JA, Sutton SK, Vadaparampil ST, Nguyen GT, Green BL, Kanetsky PA, Schabath MB CA (2015). Ọrịa cancer na nwanyị nwere mmasị nwanyị, nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke, nwoke na nwanyị, bisexual, transgender / transsexual, na queer / ajụjụ (LGBTQ) bi. Ọrịa kansa J Clin. 2015 Sep-Oct; 65 (5): 384-400.

 Ọrịa cancer na nwanyị nwere mmasị nwanyị, nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke, nwoke na nwanyị, bisexual, transgender / transsexual, na queer / ajụjụ (LGBTQ) bi.

 

Silverberg, MJ, Nash, R., Becerra-Culqui, TA, Cromwell, L., Getahun, D., Hunkeler, E.,… & Roblin, D. (2017). Otu ndi mmadu na achoputa ihe banyere oria cancer n’etiti ndi transgender. Akụkọ banyere ọrịa na-efe efe, 27(8), 499.

   Na-agba mbọ nyocha banyere ihe ize ndụ kansa n'etiti ndị transgender inshọransị.

 

Slabbekoorn, D., van Goozen, S., Megens, J., Gooren, L. na Cohen-Kettenis, P. 2001. Mmetụta ọgwụgwọ hormone na-enwe mmekọahụ na mmetụta uche na transsexuals. Akwụkwọ akụkọ International nke Transgenderism, 5 (3) Ewepụtara site na

 Mmetụta ọgwụgwọ hormone na-enwe mmekọahụ na mmetụta uche na transsexuals. 

 

Van Kesteren, P., Egbugbere ọnụ, P., Gooren, L., Asscheman, H., & Megens, J. (2001). Ogologo oge na-agbaso njupụta nke ịnweta ọkpụkpụ na metabolism metabolism na transsexuals ejiri ọgwụgwọ na-enwe mmekọahụ. Clinical Endocrinology, 48(3), 347-354.

Ogologo oge a na-esote oke mmanu nke okpukpu na metabolism nke okpukpu na transsexuals nke a na-emeso homonụ mmekọahụ cross nwoke.

 

Wierckx, K., Elaut, E., Declercq, E., Heylens, G., De Cuypere, G., Taes, Y.,. . . T'Sjoen, G. (2013). Njupụta nke ọrịa obi na ọrịa cancer n'oge mmekorita nwoke na nwanyị na-enwe mmekọahụ na nnukwu ìgwè ndị trans: Nnyocha ọmụmụ ihe. European Journal of Endocrinology, 169(4), 471-478. doi:10.1530/EJE-13-0493

Ọrịa nke akwara obi na ọrịa kansa n’oge ọgwụgwọ nwoke na nwanyị inwe mmekọahụ.

 

2) ọmụmụ: Gini bu nmekorita nke umu aka na umu aka ndi na esoro ogwugwo?

Azịza Ndị na-egbochi puberty (PBA) na testosterone dị ala na estrogen dị ala karịa ka o kwesịrị, wee si otú ahụ na-ejigide nsogbu ahụ. Onweghi ihe omumu di omimi banyere ihe ndi aputaghi na ihe adighi anya. Mgbako na-aga n'ihu na-eme ka nwoke na nwanyị nọgide na-abawanye (ya bụ, nwoke na nwanyị) na ọnọdụ nwoke tozuru oke. Ihe mgbakwunye nke homonụ na-enwe mmekọahụ anaghị agbanwe ọnọdụ a. Ngwakọta ọgwụ a na-eme ka ụmụaka ghara ịmụ ụmụ.

Ogologo oge ikpughe ule ndị ahụ na ihe ize ndụ estrogen na-enweghị atụghari mmebi ule, ya mere na-egbochi ọmụmụ n'ọdịnihu (Hembree et al., 2009). Yabụ, ọgwụgwọ homonụ na-ebute oria na mmekọahụ nwere ike ibute oke akụkụ mmekpa ahụ niile na spam. GnRH analogs ma ọ bụ depot-medroxyprogesterone ejirila kwụsị ihe mgbochi tupu ọgwụgwọ testosterone. Ọ dị mkpa ka gị na ezinụlọ gị kparịta ụka na enwere ike ịmụ nwa ma ọ bụ nke na-adịgide adịgide.

Ka o sina dị, n'agbata 40% -50% nke transgender ndị toro eto gbara ajụjụ ọnụ gosipụtara ọchịchọ ịmụ ụmụ na ọkara ndị a chọrọ ụmụ nke aka ha (Jones, Reiter, & Greenblatt, 2016). Inferility bụ nnukwu nsogbu dị na jikọtara ya na itinye ndị na-egbochi afọ iri na ụma na homonụ mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị na ụmụaka na ndị na-eto eto. Nke a dị oke njọ na ụlọ ọgwụ ndị na-ahụ maka nwoke na nwanyị na-anwa imepụta ụzọ nchekwa maka ọmụmụ nwa tupu ịmalite ọgwụgwọ. Usoro ndị a apụtaghị na ọ dị mma mana nchọpụta na-adọrọ mmasị bụ na ọ bụ naanị ndị na-eto eto dị ole na ole na-ewere nhọrọ iji chebe ọmụmụ ha (Nahata, Tishelman, Caltabellotta, & Quinn, 2017). Nke a na-egosi na ha anọghị ogo mmepe tozuru etozu nke na-eche maka ọdịnihu banyere ndị ga-abụ nne ma ọ bụ nna. Imirikiti ụmụaka na ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma na-aga ụlọ ọgwụ ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị nọ na ngalaba mmepe ma ha adịghị njikere ma ọ bụ nwee ike ịme mkpebi ogologo oge.

The American College of Pediatrics kwubiri:

Nkwenye nke echiche ụmụaka bụ nke megidere eziokwu anụ ahụ; mkpofu kemịkal nke ụmụaka ndị a tupu ha etolite na GnRH agonists (ndị na-etolite etolite etolite na-akpata enweghị ike, uto na-etolite, ntakịrị ọkpụkpụ, na mmetụta a na-amaghị ama na mmepe ụbụrụ ha), na, n'ikpeazụ, ịmị nwoke na-adịgide adịgide nke ụmụaka ndị a tupu ha eruo afọ 18 site na homonụ nwoke na nwanyị sex bụ mmegbu ụmụaka:

  Mahadum nke Paediatrics nke America kwuru na Mmekọahụ Mmekọahụ na-emerụ ụmụaka.

 

References:

Ebel, BS (2014). Iji ọgwụ a na-ahụ ụmụaka na ụmụaka nọ na dysphoria okike: nyocha nke usoro. Akụkọ Hastings Center, 44(s4), S23-S27.

  Iji ọgwụ a na-ahụ ụmụaka na ụmụaka nọ na dysphoria okike: nyocha nke usoro.

 

Hembree, WC, Cohen-Kettenis, P., Delemarre-Van De Waal, HA, Gooren, LJ, Meyer III, WJ, Spack, N. ndị mmadụ: Ntuziaka ụkpụrụ ịgwọ ọrịa ụlọ ọrụ Endocrine Society. Akwụkwọ bụ Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism94(9), 3132-3154.

  Ndụmọdụ usoro ịgwọ ọrịa Endocrine Society.

 

Jones, CA, Reiter, L., & Greenblatt, E (2016). Nchekwa ọmụmụ na ndị ọrịa transgender, International Journal of Transgenderism, 17: 2, 76-82, DOI:

  Ichebe ọmụmụ na ndị ọrịa transgender.

 

Michael Laidlaw, & Kevin Donovan (2019). Ikike nke nlekọta kacha mma maka ụmụaka anaghị agụnye ikike mgbanwe ọgwụ. American Journal of Bioethics, 19: 2, 75-77, DOI:

  Ikike inweta nlekọta kacha mma maka ụmụaka anaghị agụnye ikike ịgafe ọgwụ.

 

Nahata, L., Tishelman, AC, Caltabellotta, NM, & Quinn, GP (2017). Itinye ikike nchekwa ọmụmụ dị ala n'etiti ndị ntorobịa transgender. Edee akwụkwọ banyere Ahụike nke Ado, 61(1), 40-44.

 

3) Igbu mmadu: N'ihe banyere nwatakịrị na-eto onwe nke nwoke na-arịa igbu onwe ya, ọ̀ bụ nchịkwa Ọgwụ Mmegharị nke Mmekọ nwoke na nwanyị, tinyere ọgwụ mgbochi mmebi nwoke na homonụ nwoke na nwanyị inwe ezi uche ma ọ bụ nke ziri ezi maka igbu onwe ya?

Azịza:  Ọgwụgwọ nke ndị okenye anaghị eweda ihe nwute.

Agbanyeghi na igbu onwe onye na ọnụ ọgụgụ a dị elu, dị ka okpokoro dị n'okpuru na-agba akaebe, enwere obere nchọpụta na-egosi na ọgwụgwọ mgbanwe nwoke na nwanyị na-ebute obere ihe egwu maka igbu onwe. Enwekwara nsogbu na ọmụmụ gbasara dysphoria nke nwoke na nwanyị igbu onwe ha metụtara etu esi atụ izu igbu onwe. A ga-enwetara ọnụego dị iche iche n'ọmụmụ ihe dị iche iche n'ihi iji ụdị mmụba dị iche iche. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ịjụ gị ma ọ bụrụ na ị nwere echiche igbu onwe gị ga-eme ka ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu karịa ịgụta ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ọnwụ igbu onwe onye (Aitken, VanderLaan, Wasserman, Stojanovski, & Zucker, K. (2016).

 

GD Mgbalị igbu onwe onye na tebụl echiche.

 

Isi mmalite: García-Vega, E. Camero, A., Fernández, M., & Villaverde, M. (2018). Echiche igbu onwe onye na ịnwa igbu onwe onye n'etiti ndị nwere dysphoria okike. Psicothema, 30, 3, 283-288 doi: 10.7334 / psicothema2017.438

  Igbu onwe onye na igbu onwe onye na nwoke dysphoria okike.

 

Budata pdf ebe a>  Iche igbu onwe ya na onye chọrọ igbu onwe ya na ụmụ nwanyị dysphoria.pdf 

 (Pịa ebe a> Iji nweta onye ntụgharị okwu na ntanetị gaa n'asụsụ gị.)

 

Ọ bụ ezie na a chọkwuru ọmụmụ ogologo oge siri ike, ihe akaebe dị ugbu a (Dhejne, Lichtenstein, Boman, Johansson, Långstrom, et al., 2011) na-egosi na ndị nwere mmegharị nwoke na nwanyị nwere nnukwu ihe ize ndụ maka ọnwụ (oge 3 karịa), suicidality (5 Ugboro ugboro, ọnwụ site na igbu onwe (oge 19 nwere ike karịa), yana ọrịa ọrịa uche (3 ugboro karịa ka ọ dị) karịa njikwa gbakọtara ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ niile. Onyonyo 1 gosiputara ihe dika ihe nlere nke oge otutu 30. Nsonaazụ rụpụtara dị ukwuu maka MTF ma e jiri ya tụnyere FTM ndị mmadụ. Ọgwụ transgender anaghị egbochi igbu onwe ya, ma nweekwa nsogbu ndị ọzọ na mgbanwe mgbanwe ahụike uche.

 

Ọnọdụ ọ bụla nke ọnwụ Match Na mmekọahụ na tebụl ọmụmụ.

Ọgụgụ 1: Ọnwụ site na ihe ọ bụla dịka ọrụ nke oge mgbe nwoke na nwanyị gachara n'etiti ndị transsexual nwoke na nwanyị nke 324 na Sweden (nwoke na nwanyị: N = 191, nwoke na nwoke: N = 133), na njikwa ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ jikọtara n'afọ ọmụmụ. [Isi mmalite: Dhejne,
Lichtenstein, Boman, Johansson, Långstrom, et al. (2011)].

   Ọnwụ site na ihe ọ bụla dị ka ọrụ nke oge mgbe onye na-ezigharị mmekọahụ n'etiti ndị transsexual 324 na Sweden.

 

Ajuju gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ bụ otu ihe kpatara ya. Ọ bụ dysphoria okike na-akpata igbu onwe ya ka ọ bụ ọgwụgwọ ịkpa oke na mwepụ nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na-ata ahụhụ site na mpaghara transgender nke na - ebute ya, ma ọ bụ igbu onwe ya na dysphoria okike kpatara site na nwoke.
ihe nke ato, dika oria uche, oria ezin’ulo, nne na nna ma obu ndi mmadu? N'ime ọrụ m na ndị na-eto eto na-efe efe, achọpụtawo m nnukwu nchegbu banyere nsogbu obi ọgbụgba siri ike na-eto eto ndị a chọrọ oke mmụọ na ọgwụgwọ nne na nna na ezinaụlọ iji dozie ọgba aghara ndị a. M na-eche banyere ndị na-aga ozugbo na ụlọọgwụ nwoke na nwanyị na-ekwupụta ndị ọkachamara na-ekwupụta ihe ndị a na-asọ asọ na akparamagwa na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya ma na-aga na ntughari nwoke na nwanyị na nkwenye siri ike na nke a ga-edozi nsogbu niile ha na-eweta?

Ntughari:

Aitken, M., VanderLaan, DP, Wasserman, L., Stojanovski, S., & Zucker, KJ (2016). Emerụ onwe onye na igbu onwe ụmụaka na ụmụaka zoro aka maka dysphoria okike. Akwụkwọ akụkọ American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(6), 513-520. doi:

  Imerụ onwe na igbu onwe onye ụmụaka zoro aka na dysphoria okike.

 

4) Nwa kacha mma Mmasị: Enwere ọnọdụ dị ugbu a nke nchịkwa Ọgwụ gbasara Mmekọrịta Ọ ga - abụ maka ọdịmma ụmụaka na ndị ntorobịa?

Azịza:  Y’oburu na odi, ha gha abughi onye n’enweghi nsogbu.

Dabere na Mahadum American nke Paediatricians (2018a):

Mmekọahụ mmadụ bụ ọnụọgụ abụọ, na-ekpebi ihe ọmụmụ, na njiri mara nke agbụrụ site na ntụgharị uche gaa n'ihu. … “XY” na “XX” bụ ihe nrịbama nke nwoke na nwanyị n'otu n'otu, ana - ahụkwa ya na mkpụrụ ndụ niile nke ahụ mmadụ gụnyere ụbụrụ. Ebidola inwe mmekọahụ na ịtụrụ ime, ekwuputala onwe ya na utero, a na-anabata ya mgbe a mụrụ ya.

Enweghị ebumnuche (ụlọ nyocha, ihe onyonyo wdg) ma ọ bụ nnwale nyocha nke nwere ike ịdabere na nwa "ezi transgender ụmụaka." Site na ngwụsị ntorobịa, ụmụaka nwere dysphoria okike ndị kwere ka ha nwee uto okike ga-abịa nabata mmekọahụ ha. N'agbata 61% -98% nke ụmụaka kwụsịrị na njirimara transgender. Otu nnyocha banyere ụmụ nwoke dysphoric okike (n = 246) agbasotere na ntozu oke gosipụtara na 84% kwụsịrị oge ụfọdụ. Otutu buru ndi mmadu nwere nmekorita ma obu ndi nwoke na ndi nwoke na ndi nwoke ma obu ndi nwoke ma obu nwoke. Enweghị ụzọ ịkọ ibu ga-anọgide bụrụ nwoke na nwanyị. Yabụ, 2012-80% nke ụmụaka ga-emerụ ahụ na-agbanwe agbanwe site na usoro mgbanwe nwoke na nwanyị. Ndị na - egbochi mmechi (PBA) na - emebi ụzọ nke agụụ mmadụ - ozugbo etinyere ụmụaka na PBA, ọkachasị, dịka ndị na - etolite etolite, chọrọ inwe ọganihu gaa na homonụ nwoke na nwanyị inwe mmekọahụ n'ihi mmezu ahụ na / ma ọ bụ mmetụta nke PBA (Steensma et al., 90).

Dabere na American College of Paediatricians (2018b):

Gys dysphoria (GD) nke nwata na-akọwa ọnọdụ mmụọ ebe ụmụaka na-enweta njiri mara dị n'etiti nwoke na nwanyị nwere ahụmahụ na nwoke na nwanyị metụtara mmekọahụ. Mgbe nke a mere na nwatakiri tupu amụ ihe, GD na - edozi ọtụtụ ndị ọrịa site na mgbe etolite etolite. Ugbu a enwere ikike, n'agbanyeghị oke, arụmụka n'etiti ndị dibịa, ndị na-agwọ ọrịa, na ndị mmụta banyere ihe na-aghọrọ usoro ọgwụgwọ ọhụrụ maka GD na ụmụaka. Ihe atụ ọhụrụ a gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ na iche na GD dị n'ọdịdị, ma ọ bụ iwelata mkpịsị pubertal na gonadotropin na-ewepụta hormone (GnRH) homonụ nke nwoke na nwanyị na-enwe mmekọahụ - njikọta nke na-ebute ike ụmụaka. … Ebumnuche a bụ nke echiche gbadoro n'echiche ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị, enweghị ihe akaebe, ma mebie ụkpụrụ omume toro ogologo nke “Buru ụzọ merụọ onwe gị.

Data banyere nnọgidesi ike nke ndụ ndị na-eto eto transgender na-etolite etolite bụ ihe a na-apụghị ịdabere na ya, ọ bụ n'ihi na ọtụtụ ndị efunahụ ịgbaso (Dhejne, Lichtenstein, Boman, Johansson, Långström, & Landén, 2011). Nchoputa emere na nso nso a na egosi na onu ogugu ndi ichoro ime ka mgbanwe ha na-abawanye. 

Achọghị ntụkwasị obi data maka ịnọgidesi ike na nwata ahụ na-ebi ndụ okomoko na ịbụ okenye.

 

Mana nyocha ma ọ bụ mkparịta ụka ọ bụla gbasara ịgbanwere mgbanwe na-egbochi ndị ọbịa transgender yana ndị ọkachamara dịka ndị kọmitii na-achịkwa ụkpụrụ omume na mahadum ndị na-egosipụtaghị obi ike omume ọ bụla n'ịkwado ụdị nyocha ahụ.

 

Ndị njem transgender na ndị ọkachamara na-egbochi nnyocha ma ọ bụ mkparịta ụka banyere mbupu.

 

References:

American College of Paediatricians (2018a):

Budata pdf ebe a>  Isi okwu-banyere-HHS-DOJ-DOE-Dezie-Nkọwa-nke-Mmekọahụ

(Pịa ebe a> Iji nweta onye ntụgharị okwu na ntanetị n'asụsụ gị.)

  American College of Paediatricians Na-ekwu Okwu / Nkwupụta Ọnọdụ na Gys Dysphoria.

 

Dhejne, C., Lichtenstein, P., Boman, M., Johansson, AL, Långström, N., & Landén, M. (2011). Ogologo oge nke ụmụ nwoke na nwoke na nwanyị na-eme ịwa ahụ na-enwe mmekọahụ: ọmụmụ ndị otu na Sweden. Ejiri otu, 6 (2), e16885. ma ọ bụ: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0016885

 Ntughari anya nke ndi mmadu ndi na-eme nwoke na nwanyi na-enyocha mmeko nwoke na nwoke.

 

Budata pdf ebe a>  Singh, Devita (2012). Ihe omumu nke umu nwoke nke nwere dysphoria nwoke.

  (Pịa ebe a> Iji nweta onye ntụgharị okwu na ntanetị n'asụsụ gị.)

 

Steensma, Thomas D., et al. (2013). mmepe nke njirimara nwoke na nwanyị. Hormones na Omume, 64, 2, pp.
288 – 297. doi: 10.1016 / j.yhbeh.2013.02.020.

  Mmepe njiri mara nwoke na nwanyị. Hormones na Omume.

 

  Ihe ngosi ohuru: Otutu ndi mmadu na-akwa ụta na mgbanwe okike na ha choro ‘izopu ya’, dibia na-ekwu

 

5) Inyocha nkwenye: Childrenmụaka na ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma nwere ike ịghọta ihe ọghọm, uru na ọghọm nke Ntugharị Agụba Ọnọdụ ma nye nkwenye sitere na ya?

Azịza: Ọ na - esiri onye ọ bụla ike, ọkachasị ụmụaka, ịnye nkwenye maka ọgwụgwọ maka ọnọdụ echeghị eche. Ọzọkwa, ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke ụmụaka na ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma na-achọ ụdị ọgwụgwọ a nwere nsogbu akparamàgwà, ọgụgụ isi, ọgụgụ isi na ọgụgụ isi nke na-egbochi ikike nkwenye.

Okwu ikpe n'ihu Courtlọikpe Ezinụlọ nke Australia na-achọ ikike ụlọ ikpe maka ọgwụgwọ hormone na-enwe mmekọahụ ma ọ bụ ịwa ahụ mmegharị mmekọahụ amụbawo nke ukwuu kemgbe 2004, nke nụrụ otu ikpe, na ikpe 18 na 2015, na ikpe 22 na 2016. Na mkpokọta, ụlọ ikpe ahụ ekpebiela na okwu 56 n'oge a, gụnyere inye ụmụ agbọghọ ise ikike maka mastectomy nke ọ bụla. N'ime ụmụ iri ise na isii ndị a, 56 n'ime 25 ikpe nke nwere ike ịchọpụta kpakpando ezinụlọ bi na ezinụlọ naanị nne ma ọ bụ nna ma ọ bụ nne na-elekọta nne, naanị mmadụ 39 sitere n'ezinụlọ nne na nna. N'ime otu ụmụ 14 ahụ, 56% nwere nsogbu ọrịa uche, gụnyere Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), nnukwu ịda mbà n'obi, nchekasị, nsogbu mmegide mmegide (ODD), ADHD, na nkwarụ ọgụgụ isi. Nnyocha e mere na nso nso a gosipụtara oke ọrịa dysphoria nke nwoke na ndị nwere ASD (van der Miesen, Hurley, Bal, & de Vries, 50).

N'ihe atụ nke ụmụaka dysphoric 105 okike nke nwoke na iji usoro nyocha Achọpụta Diagnostic for Children (DISC), a hụrụ nsogbu ụjọ na 21%, nsogbu ọgbaghara dị na 12.4%, yana nsogbu ọgba aghara na 11.4% nke ndị na-eto eto. Lesmụ nwoke nwere akparamaagwa dị ukwuu ma e jiri ya tụnyere ụmụ nwanyị, gụnyere nchọpụta ụkọ (de Vries et al. 2011).

Maka ụfọdụ [ụmụaka na-akọwa dị ka "transgender"], isi sekpụ ntị bụ njirimara nwoke na nwanyị ma ọ bụ njirimara; maka ndị ọzọ, okwu gbasara nwoke na nwanyị yiri ka ọ bụ epiphenomena nke psychopathology, ikpughe na trauma, ma ọ bụ ịnwa iji dozie nsogbu dị ka ọnọdụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya ma ọ bụ uru ndị ọzọ ha chere na ha nwere njikọ na nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị ọzọ (Drescher & Byne, 2012, p.
503
).

  Isi okwu NA Mkpebi MAKA EGO NA-EKWU NIILE:

N'ime okenye transgender okenye, ahụike ahụike achọpụtabeghị na ihe transgender karịa ma e jiri ya tụnyere ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị (Quinn et al., 2017). Dịka ọmụmaatụ, achọpụtara nchekasị na 38% nke ụmụ nwanyị trans (TF) ma e jiri ya tụnyere 22% nke ụmụ nwanyị na-ezo aka (RF). A chọpụtara nhụda mmụọ na 49% (TF) vs 25% (RF); igbu onwe onye na 5% (TF) ma e jiri ya tụnyere 0.6% (RF); na nsogbu ị abuseụ ọgwụ na 15% TF ma e jiri ya tụnyere 5% RF. N'ime trans nwoke (TM) ahụike ahụike ka njọ ma e jiri ya tụnyere ụmụ nwoke kwuru maka (RM). Dịka ọmụmaatụ, a chọpụtara 46% TM nwere nchekasị ma e jiri ya tụnyere 13% RM. N'otu aka ahụ, maka ịda mba (55% vs13%), mmerụ ahụ merụrụ onwe ya (4.2% vs 0.4%), echiche igbu onwe (6.7% vs 0.6%), na nsogbu ị substanceụbiga ihe oke (14% vs 8.4%), TM nwere nnukwu ọghọm. karịa RM.

A pụkwara igbochi nkwenye ekwenye site na nnukwu ihe dị na gburugburu ebe obibi nke "rafuo" ndị na-eto eto iji nwee otu echiche na-enweghị ezigbo ihe ọmụma banyere otu esi emetụta echiche ha na mmetụta ha na isiokwu ahụ. N'inye ihe akaebe siri ike nke ntụgharị nke ndị ọgbọ na igbu onwe, ihe oriri na nsogbu iri nri, ọkachasị n'etiti ndị na-eto eto, ọrụ ndị na - eme ka ndị mmadụ na - eleghara ihe anya na dysphoria okike chọrọ nlebara anya ngwa ngwa.

Ọ bụrụ na anyị enyochaa ọrịa dysphoria gbasara nwoke na nwanyị na usoro netwọkụ mmekọrịta, anyị na-ahụ ọtụtụ atụmatụ na-arụ ọrụ. Ọ bụ usoro ihe eji emeghe ihe na ọnụ na agbatị na-agbasa gburugburu ụwa. Ọtụtụ mba na-ekwuputa mmụba siri ike n'ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-achọ ọrụ na ọgwụgwọ maka dysphoria okike. Ọtụtụ na-ebido ọrụ ma na-ehiwe ụlọọgwụ ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị ọhụrụ iji gboo mkpa ha. A na - ejikọ naanị netwọkụ a naanị otu olu - ụlọ nnabata transactivist na - akwado ọgwụgwọ mgbanwe nwoke na nwanyị ozugbo - ịnụ karịa nkụda mmụọ siri ike nke ndị nne na nna ụjọ na ndị ọkà mmụta na-atụ ụjọ, ndị nchọpụta, ndị dọkịta, ndị ọkà n'akparamàgwà mmadụ na ndị ọkà n'akparamàgwà mmadụ. Ndị isi nchọnchọ na-arụ ọrụ n'etiti etiti netwọkụ a na-enwe mmetụta dị ukwuu. Ogo nke njupụta na ntanetị nwere mmetụta abụọ - nke mbụ, ọ na-eme ka mgbasa ozi dị n'etiti ndị otu na nke abụọ, ọ na-egbochi iwebata echiche na-enweghị mgbagha na ihe akaebe (Iyengar, Van den Bulte, & Valente, 2011). Ọtụtụ ndị na-eto eto agaghị ekweta na ọ na-adịrị ha mfe ime otú ahụ, na ha ekpebiwokwa nke ha. Agbanyeghị, mgbe ajụrụ ha ajụjụ, ha na-ekwughachi okwu mkpọsa a na-agbasa dị ka ihe kpatara ha ji chọọ ịmalite mgbanwe nwoke na nwanyị.

References:

De Vries, AL, Noens, IL, Cohen-Kettenis, PT, van Berckelaer-Onnes, IA, & Doreleijers, TA (2010). Nsogbu nke Autism na ụmụaka dysphoric ụmụ nwoke na ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma. Journal of Autism na Nsogbu Mmepe, 40(8), 930-936.

  Ọrịa Autism dị iche iche na ụmụaka dysphoric okike na ụmụ ntorobịa.

 

Drescher, J., & Byne, W. (2012). Gris dysphoric / okike variant (gd / gv) umuaka na umuaka: Ichikota ihe anyi ma na ihe anyi ka muta. Journal of nwoke idina nwoke, 59(3), 501-510. doi: 10.1080 / 00918369.2012.653317

 Childrenmụaka ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwoke dysphoric okike / nwoke na nwanyị na-eto eto: ummchikota ihe anyị maara na ihe anyị ka ga-amụ. Journal nke nwoke idina nwoke

 

Iyengar, R., Van den Bulte, C., & Valente, TW (2011). Nkwupụta echiche na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na mgbasa ngwaahịa ọhụrụ. Sayensị Azụmaahịa, 30(2), 195-212.

  Onye ndu ochichi echiche na ngha n’iru n’iru ahia.

 

Quinn, VP, Nash, R., Hunkeler, E., Contreras, R., Cromwell, L., Becerra-Culqui, TA,. . . Goodman, M. (2017). Profaịlụ ngbako: Ọmụmụ banyere ntụgharị, nsonaazụ na okike (STRONG) iji chọpụta ọnọdụ ahụike nke ndị transgender. Mepee BMJ, 7(12), e018121. doi: 10.1136 / bmjopen-2017-018121

  Ọmụmụ banyere ntụgharị, nsonaazụ na okike (STRONG) iji chọpụta ọnọdụ ahụike nke ndị transgender. 

 

Van der Miesen, AIR, Hurley, H., Bal, AM, & de Vries, ALC (2018). Njupụta nke ọchịchọ ịbụ nke nwoke na nwanyị na-eto eto na ndị toro eto nwere nsogbu nke autism. Akụkọ banyere Àgwà Ọjọọ. doi: 10.1007/s10508-018-1218-3

 Nsogbu nke ochicho inwe nke ndi di na nwanyi na ndi toro eto na ndi okenye nwere nsogbu agha akpaghiaka.

 

6) Ọrụ nne na nna: O kwesiri ka edororo nne ma obu nna n’inyere umu ha aka whether ghota ma o bu ihe di mma n’ebe ndi mmadu no?

Azịza:  Kpachapụ anya. Na mgbakwunye, enwere ọrụ maka nyocha nke mgbanwe nne na nna, mmekọrịta nne na nna na nwatakịrị na mmerụ ezinụlọ nke ụmụaka dysphoric okike tupu emee mkpebi ọ bụla iji gwọọ ọgwụgwọ.

Anyi choro ichoputa onodu nke nwoke nke dysphoria nke nwoke na ebili na ihe mere eji abanye n’onodu a choputara n’aho iri gara aga, ihe a na-abawanye bu ihe banyere oria. Ndị a gụnyere njikọ ụlọ, akparamaagwa ndị nne na nna, omume ọjọọ, mmetọ ụmụaka, yana ndagide ndị ọgbọ na ihe gbasara ọdịnala.

Enwere ike ịghọta dysphoria nke nwoke na nwanyi karia ka usoro nmekorita karia dika ihe ndi mmadu. Mata mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ụmụaka na-eto eto na-ekwupụta na ha bụ transgender kama na-ekwenyeghị na nkwupụta mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị na-eche ihu maka ndị niile metụtara, gụnyere ndị nne na nna, ndị dọkịta, ndị na-agwọ ọrịa, na transactivist.

Ihe omumu akwukwo akwukwo banyere mmepe banyere ihe ndi mmadu na emetuta mmepe okike n’ime ezinaulo.

(McHale, Updegraff, Helms-Erikson, & Crouter, 2001;

Pierrehumbert et al., 2009;

Sumontha, Farr, & Patterson, 2017;

Tenenbaum & Akwụkwọ, 2002)

nwere ike ịkọwa ma duzie nchọpụta n'ime ezinụlọ nwere nwa transgender. E nwere akwụkwọ dị nso na dysphoria okike nke na-enyocha ngbanwe ezinaụlọ, ụdị mmekọrịta nne na nna nwa.

(Zucker, Osisi, Singh, & Bradley, 2012)

na nwanne

(Rust, Golombok, Hines, Johnston, & Golding, 2000)

mmekọrịta na echiche ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị na omume ha

(Dawson, Pike, & Nnụnụ, 2016)

n'ime ezinụlọ ndị nwere nwa transgender

(Riley, Sitharthan, Clemson, & Diamond, 2011)

ọ bụ ezie na akwụkwọ a ka dịkwa ebe a. 

 

 AMAOKWU NSOGBU MAKA MAKA EGO NA-EKWU NIILE: Ajuju na azịza

 

Otu nnyocha nke ezinụlọ ndị ọdịnala chọpụtara na ụmụaka ndị tozuru etozu bụ ndị nwere oke nchegbu na nne ha ma ọ bụ ndị nwere ụdị nke enweghị nchebe na nne ha nwere afọ ojuju dị ala na obere mmetụta nwoke na nwanyị na-enwe ma e jiri ya tụnyere ụmụaka nwere njikọ chiri anya.

  (Cooper et al., 2013).

 

Mmetụta dị a aaa ka nne ma ọ bụ nna họọrọ nwa na-abụghị nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị ga-enwe na njirimara nwoke na nwanyị? Enwere ike iji ezigbo ajụjụ dị otú a mee nchọpụta n'ime ezinụlọ nwere nwa transgender.

"Ndị nne na nna bụ ndị ogbugbo dị oke egwu banyere ahụmịhe ụmụ ha dịgasị iche iche…" (Gray, Sweeney, Randazzo, & Levitt, 2016, p. 123),

  Isi okwu NA Mkpebi-MAKA EGO maka nnabata nwoke na nwanyị.

dị ka eziokwu bụ ụmụnne, ndị ọgbọ, na gburugburu ebe obibi nke ụmụaka na-etolite ma na-amụ ihe, gụnyere ụlọ ọgwụ gbasara nwoke na nwanyị, mgbasa ozi mmekọrịta, na ndị ọkachamara kọwara. Nghọta adighi anya na ihe ndia nile di na nwatakiri dysphoric nke nwanyi. Dika odi, odi ezigbo mkpa ka emee nyocha nke oma tupu ha emee mgbanwe ndi a na - agbanweghi agbanwe na ahu ha na - etolite.

Na mgbakwunye, ndị nne na nna na-enwekwa otu mmetụta ahụ ka ụmụ ha ekwuputa na transgender transgender. Ha na-aga ịntanetị mgbe niile, na-esonye na ndị otu ndị nne na nna na-akwado ndị nne na nna, na-enye ajụjụ ọnụ a na-akọ banyere mgbasa ozi na-eme ka ndị nọọsụ na-ahụ maka ndị nwoke na nwanyị, "Ọ ga-akara m mma ịlụ nwanyị ndụ karịa nwa nwoke nwụrụ anwụ." ​​Ndị nne na nna nwere ike ịnwe nke ha psychopathologies na-egwu egwu na transgender drama nke umu ha. Maka nne na nna kewapụrụ onwe ya, ọ na-abụ agha buru ibu nke mmadụ na-akwado nkwupụta okike nwa ya nwoke ebe nke ọzọ na-agba mbọ igbochi nchịkwa nke ọgwụ ọjọọ na ịwa ahụ. Ezinaụlọ ndị a kwesiri inyocha ya maka ikewapụ nne na nna ha.

7) Amamịghe ezighi ezi: Gini bu echiche ndi n’eme ka nghota nke dysphoria nke nwoke na nwanyi n’ebe nmekorita nke transactivist?

Azịza:  Ndị na-akwado transgender na-ekwu na na transgenderism - nkwenkwe / nkwenye na amụrụ mmadụ na ahụ na-ezighi ezi - ahụ ga-adakọrịrị na nkwenkwe nwoke na nwanyị, ọ bụghị nkwenye mmadụ na ahụ ndu ya. Ha na-eche na uche ahụ "ziri ezi" n'echiche ya na nkwenkwe ya na ahụ na-arịa ọrịa na a ghaghị ịgwọ ya. Transgenderism bu nsogbu nke nnabata ma dika nsogbu ndi ozo nke echiche, solipsistic. Solipsism bụ nkwenye na echiche ndị na-ebute n'uche bụ eziokwu na enweghị ike ịjụ ajụjụ. Dị ka ihe atụ, ndị nsogbu ha na-atụ ụjọ na-eche na ha nwere abụba ma n’ezie, ha tara ahụ́. Ndi mmadu dysmorphia nwere aru aru na etinye aka na ogwugwu ogwugwo na-adighi adi iji dozie ihe ojoo ha, mgbe odidi ha adabaghi ​​n'ime 'usoro' maka omenala ha. Ndị nwere nkwarụ njiri mara ahụ (BIID) na-ahụ otu ma ọ bụ karịa akụkụ ahụ ha ma ọ bụ akụkụ ahụ ha dị ka ndị ọbịa na akụkụ ahụ ha niile ma chọọ iwepụ ha, bepụ ma ọ bụ kpọnwụrụ akpọnwụ. Ọ bụrụ na ha ajụ ịwa ahụ, ha nwere ike ibipụ onwe ha. Anyị enwere ike, dị ka ọha mmadụ, kwadoro mbibi ma ọ bụ mkpọnwụ nke aka na ahụike na ndị nwere BIID? N’otu aka ahụ, ọ bụ ihe ziri ezi ịkpụkpụ mkpụrụ amụ na ahụ ike dị mma? Nsogbu echiche bụ nsogbu nghọta. Nsogbu nke nghọta dị na ngalaba nke akparamaagwa, mgbaka, na akparamaagwa, ọ bụghị endocrinology ma ọ bụ ịwa ahụ ịwa ahụ.

Na Middles Ages, nkwenkwe bụ́ na ụmụ nwanyị ụfọdụ bụ “ndị amoosu” kpatara ogbugbu nke ọtụtụ puku ndị aka ha mere n'oge a na-eme nchọpụta. N'oge na-adịbeghị anya, ntiwapụ nke ọrịa 'gbakere' na ezinụlọ kewapụrụ. Ndị nkuzi na-adịghị mma nọrọ ọtụtụ afọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ mgbe e boro ha ebubo ụgha maka 'mmetọ n'ụzọ mmekọahụ' n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ọta akara (Kenny, 2015). Ọ bụrụ na transmender hysteria adịghị stemny, ọ ga-ebute mbibi nke ndụ ndị na-eto eto ndị na-a sweụbiga ihe na mgbanwe nke okike. Ọtụtụ nwere ike ịgbanwe obi ha, mana ịwa ahụ nwoke na nwanyị ịwa ahụ na mmerụ ahụ n'ihi ọgwụgwọ homonụ na-edugharị nwoke na-adịkarị iche.

  Chukwu, Freud na Okpukpe. Ngosiputa nke okwukwe, egwu na nkenke.

 

McHugh (2008; 2014) rụrụ ụka, "Mgbanwe mmekọahụ agaghị ekwe omume n'ụzọ ọmụmụ. Ndi mmadu n’egwughari oria-nwoke n’agbanghari site na nwoke na umu nwoke ma obu umu nwoke ka nwoke. Kama nke ahụ, ha ghọrọ ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị ma ọ bụ ụmụ nwanyị ”

  Onye bụbu Johns Hopkins Head Psychiatrist. Ngwọta nke Ọkpụkpụ Transgender abụghị Ngwọta

 

8) Social Ihe kpatara ya: Gini bu ihe ndi mmadu na eme ka oria ojoo dysphoria nke nwoke?

Azịza: Ngwakọta mmekọrịta ọha na eze na otu na-eche.

Ntughari uche bu ihe omimi banyere ndu gbasara oria. Ọ na-akọwa usoro nke mgbasa ozi n'ofe netwọ ọrịa, na-enye ohere ịchọpụta ma kpachara anya usoro na ihe kpatara ngbasa. Ndị sayensị na-elekọta mmadụ agbazirila echiche ahụ iji ghota fads, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, akụnụba ego, yana ọtụtụ echiche ndị ọhụrụ.

Echiche yiri ya bu ntughari. Groupthink, nke okwu onye ọka mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze bụ Irving Janis (1972) mejupụtara, bụ ụdị nkwekọrịta dị oke egwu ebe ndị mmadụ dị njikere idobe udo ahụ n'agbanyeghị ụgwọ niile. Ọ na - emewanye karịa na otu agbụrụ, mgbe onye isi otu dị ike ma na - adọrọ adọrọ na - ekwusi ike na omume kachasị amasị, mgbe otu ahụ nọ n'okpuru nrụgide siri ike, ebe nsogbu dị egwu bụ akụkụ nke matrik mkpebi ahụ yana ebe ebumnuche ndị dị n'èzí abụghị. kpọkuo. Nsonaazụ nke echiche otu gụnyere echiche nke ịkpa oke, mkpokọta mkpokọ, idozigharị nke ndị otu, nyocha onwe, ikwere n'omume otu, nyocha nke ezughị oke, nyocha na-ezighi ezi banyere ihe ndị ọzọ, ịghara ịchọpụta ihe egwu dị oke mma. osisa, nhazi ihe omuma, na ikwuputa ihe banyere ya na oru.

 Hysteria nke transgender. (Kenny, 2015; Turner & Pratkanis, 1998).

 

Transgenderism bụ ntụrụndụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, ọ bụghị ihe gbasara mmụọ ma ọ bụ ọgwụ ahụike nke emeela ka mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na-emegiderịta onwe ya na usoro mmekọrịta otu. Otu nwere ike lelee njirimara niile akọwapụtara n’elu na omume nke otu ịgba egbe transgender.

References:

Budata pdf ebe a>  Janis, IL (1972). Ndi ochoro nke ndi otu: Nnyocha gbasara uche na ihe ndi ozo
mkpebi na fiascos
. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

(Pịa ebe a> Iji nweta onye ntụgharị okwu na ntanetị n'asụsụ gị.)

 

Budata pdf ebe a> Ntughari, ME & Pratkanis, AR (1998). Afọ iri abụọ na ise nke otu echiche na nyocha: Ihe mmụta sitere na nyocha nke usoro mmụta. Omume nhazi na usoro mkpebi nke mmadụ, 73, 105-115.

 

(Pịa ebe a> Iji nweta onye ntụgharị okwu na ntanetị n'asụsụ gị.)

 

 

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